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bio CH 2 Vocab

bio ocab

TermDefinition
Substrate the specific reactants that an enzyme acts on
pH scale a solutions acidity or H+ ion concentration, is measured by the PH scale
Solution Mixture of substances that is the same throughout, it is a homogenous mixture
Nucleic acid es Polymers that are made up of monomers called nucleotid
Acid Compound that releases an proton-a hydrogen ions (H+) when it dissolves in water
Base Compound that removes hydrogen ions (H+) from a solution
Solvent Substance that is present in the greater amount and that dissolves another substance
Protein a polymer made of monomers called amino acids
Molecule 2 or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Cohesion Attraction among molecules of the same substance.
Solute Substance that dissolves in a solvent
Polymer Large molecule or a macro-molecule made up of many monomers bonded together
Compound A substance made up of atoms of different elements bonded together in a certain ratio
Covalent bond Bond forms when atoms share a pair of electrons
Ionic bond Bond forms through the electrical force between oppositely charges ions
Ion Atom that has gained or lost one or more electron
Amino Acid Molecules that contain, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur
Chemical reaction Change substances into different substances by breaking and forming chemical binds
Reactant Substances that are changed during a chemical reaction
Carbohydrate Molecules composed of carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen they include sugar and starches
Product Substances made by a chemical reaction.
Catalyst Substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction.
Activation energy The amount of energy that needs to be absorbed for a chemical reaction to start.
Monomer A subunit in a complete molecule
Lipid Non polar molecules that includes fats, oils, and cholesterol
Element one particular type of atom that can't be broken down into simpler substance by ordinary chemical means
Atom The smallest Basic unit of matter
hydrogen bond an attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom, often oxygen and nitrogen
adhesion the attractions among molecules of different substances
Fatty Acids chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms
Bond energy the amount of energy that will break a bond between two atoms
equilibrium when both the reactants and products are made at the same rate
exothermic chemical reaction that releases more energy than it absorbs
endothermic chemical reaction that absorbs more energy than it releases
enzymes catalysts for chemical reactions in living things