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GBio CH 24 Ecology

Basic Ecology Review

Biosphere the part of earth that supports life
ecosystem all the organisms living in an area as well as the nonliving parts of that environment
ecology the study of interactions that occur among organisms and their environments
population all the organisms of the same species that live in an area at the same time
community all the populations of all species living in an ecosystem
habitat the place in which an organism lives
limiting factor anything that restricts the number of individuals in a population
carrying capacity the largest number of individuals of one species that an ecosystem can support over time
when does competition occur? when two or more organisms seek the same resources as the same time
what are some resources that organisms compete over? food, water, living space and mates
what are examples of limiting factors? availability of food, water, living space, mates, nesting sites, and other resources
what does birth rate and death rate have to do with population size? when birth rate exceeds death rate then the population grows and when death rate exceeds birth rate the population shrinks
immigration organisms moving into an area- this causes population growth to increase
emmigration organisms moving out of an area- this causes population growth to decrease
exponential growth the larger a population gets the faster it grows
when does exponential growth occur? when there is plenty of food, living space and other resources for a population
producer an organism that makes its own food
autotroph another term or a producer
consumer an organism that must eat (consume) food for energy
heterotroph another term for a consumer
symbiosis any close relationship between species
mutualism when two species benefit within a relationship
commensalism when one species benefits and the other species in the relationship is not harmed/hurt (unaffected)
parasitism when one species benefits and the other species in the relationship is harmed
niche an organisms role it plays in an environment
what factors would be included an in a raccoon's niche? what it eats, where it lives, when it finds its food, when it mates, how many babies it has, how long it lives...
food chain a simple model of the feeding relationships
food web many food chains incorporated together
predator an organism that hunts and eats prey
prey an organism that gets hunted and eaten by a predator
predation predator-prey relationship
habitat the location of where an organism lives
photosynthesis when producers convert light energy into chemical energy (food)
chemosynthesis when producers convert chemical energy from hydrothermal vents (deep earth) into food
cellular respiration when organisms use oxygen and food to make energy to grow
keystone species Species on which other species in an ecosystem largely depend, such that if it were removed the ecosystem would change drastically
invasive species species this is not native to a specific location, and which has a tendency to spread and cause damage to the environment, human economy, or human health.
trophic cascade when changes in one level of a food chain have an effect on a different level of the food chain
trophic level each step of a food chain
biomagnification when the concentration of a toxin increases as you move higher up a food chain
Created by: ruth.baker