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Chapter 11 DA

Infection Control

What is Asepsis? The creation of an environment free of pathogens.
What is universal precautions? All patients are treated as if they are infected.
What are standard precautions? Universal precautions and body substance isolations techniques.
When are standard precautions utilized? Prior to, during, and after each procedure in the dental office.
What does OSHA stand for? Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
What does OSHA do? Enforces requirements that employers must protect employees from exposure to blood and OPIM.
What is OPIM? Other Potentially Infectious Materials.
What is the EPA? Environmental Protection Agency.
What does the EPA regulate Safety and effectiveness of disinfecting and sterilizing solutions and disposal of hazardous waste after it leaves the dental office.
What is OSAP? Organization for safety and asepsis procedures, composed of dental health care workers that help dental offices with infection control.
What is the chain of infection? Infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host.
What is one of the most important ways to prevent the transfer of microorganisms? Hand washing.
Define antimicrobial. A microorganism growth inhibitor.
What is the minimum time to complete a handwash? 15 seconds.
What is the best way to dry washed hands? Disposable paper towels.
What is PPE? Personal Protective Equipment.
What is the PPE worn in the dental office? Protective eyewear, gloves, mask, protective clothing, barriers.
What type of protection does eyewear require? Front, top, and side protection.
Who should have protective eyewear? Dentist, dental assistant, and patient.
What type of glove is used for most procedures. Latex/vinyl= Exam gloves.
Can gloves be washed and reused? yes, utility.
What type of glove is used for surgical procedures? Sterile surgical gloves.
What are food handler gloves called in the dental office? Overgloves.
How are food handler gloves used in the dental office? Placed over the latex or vinyl gloves to prevent cross contamination.
Why are utility gloves used in the dental office? Used during disinfection and clean up procedures.
Why are mask worn in a dental office? To protect the mucous membrane of the nose and mouth.
What are the standards for wearing a mask? Fits snugly against face, and stays in place during procedure, change after each procedure.
Describe the protective clothing worn in a dental office. Uniforms, laboratory coats, gowns, and clinical jackets.
How should contaminated protective clothing be removed? Keep the side of clothing that is possibly contaminated with pathogens folded inward.
Define cleaning. The physical removal of organic material such as blood, tissue, and debris.
Define disinfection. Occurs when SOME microorganisms are destroyed.
Define sterilization. ALL forms of microorganisms are destroyed.
What is the accepted technique for cleaning and disinfecting surfaces. Spay-wipe spray-wipe technique.
What does high-level disinfection kill? Most but not all bacterial spores.
What does intermediate-level disinfection kill? Does not kill bacterial spores.
What does low-level disinfection kill? Viruses, and fungi, and most bacterial microorganisms.
What does the different disinfection materials irritate? Skin, eyes, and mucous membrane.
Why is sodium hypochlorite not used often in the dental office? Solution is unstable, needs to mixed daily.
Why is alcohol not used as a disinfection agent? It evaporates so quick that its difficult to have surface contact for the length of time necessary to be effective, Only cleans.
What is a holding bath? A pre-cleaning, A solution that loosens hardened debris from the instruments prior to cleaning and sterilization.
Can a holding bath disinfect instruments? It cannot disinfect, Just starts the process.
How does the ultrasonic cleaner work? Sound waves travel through glass and metal using a special solution to clean debris from instruments.
Define cavitation process. Bubbles are formed, bubbles Implode and produce a cleaning effect, takes 3-10 minutes.
What replaces hand scrubbing instruments? Ultrasonic cleaning.
What needs to be done to the instruments after they are cleaned in the ultrasonic and before they are put into the sterilization package? Rinsed and dried thoroughly and may also be placed in an alcohol bath to assist in the drying process.
How long does liquid chemical disinfectant take to sterilize? 6-10 hours at room temp.
What happens if something is added to the liquid chemical during the sterilization process? The process is started over.
How does the autoclave sterilize? Uses steam under pressure to quickly sterilize items.
What is the preferred method of sterilization for instruments with sharp cutting edges? Dryheat sterilization.
Which sterilizing method uses distilled water? Steam under pressure. Also known as the autoclave.
What can cause sterilization failure? Rinsing with water that is not sterilized, wrapping instrument improperly, and overloading.
What does a hissing sound mean on a sterilizer? The gasket around the door may be damaged.
What is the best way to maintain sterile instruments? Store instrument in bag they were sterilized in.
What is the most accurate way to ensure that sterilization has occurred? Biological monitors.
What shows that the package was exposed to heat in a sterilizer? Process monitors.
What are other infection control techniques? Pre- procedure antiseptic mouth rinses, high volume evacuation, dental dam usage, disposable items.
What is the most common pre-procedure mouth rinse used in the dental office? 12% chlorhexidine gluconate.
What minimizes aerosol spray from hand pieces? High volume Evacuation.
What are disposable items? Single use items.
What area in the dental office can be overlooked and cross contamination can occur? Dental radiography room and equipment, and Lab.
True or false? Latex allergens can result in contact dermatitis True.
What is the principal organization for dentistry in the united states? ADA.
Name the agency that is part of the U.S. public health service, a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and is a source of many regulations. CDC.
What does CDC stand for? Center for Disease Control.
What does ADA stand for? American Dental Association.
An employee that would have any occupational exposure to blood would be what category? Category 1.
Items in the dental office such as sterilizers and PPE are regulated by? FDA.
What cycle is perpetuated when pathogens are allowed to pass from Dentist to patient or patient to Dentist? Cross-contamination.
One of the primary concerns of handwashing is to? Remove the transient microorganisms, because they constitute the group that includes hepatitis.
Who developed a standard for the design and characteristics of occupational eyewear/glasses? ANSI.
Uses heat at 340 degrees F? Dry Heat.
Uses 250 degrees F? Steam Autoclave.
Requires 10 hours in solution. Liquid chemical disinfectant.
Must be 270 degrees F. Chemical Vapor.
Created by: zckmyrs85
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