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Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology of infectious diseases - Keywords

TermDefinition
Virulence An operational term that rests on the interaction between microbial factors and the defenses of the host
Opportunistic pathogen Organisms of normally low virulence (i.e., not usually capable of causing disease in a normal individual) may become dangerous pathogens when immunity is compromised
Reservoir A habitat where etiologic agents normally reside and multiply
Source The place from which an organism is transmitted to the host
Endogenous Part of the flora normally colonizing the skin or mucous membranes
Exogenous Acquired from the environment
Endogenous normal flora Organisms that are capable of colonizing the normal host for long period of time without causing disease
Portal of entry Original site of contact
Adhesins Specific molecules on the organisms that are responsible for attachment (e.g., glycoproteins that can bind to cellular surface receptors or to extracellular matrix materials) (i.e., bacterial attachment factors)
Peptidoglycan A network of poysaccharide chains cross-linked by short peptides
Pilus (fimbria) One of the most prominent types of bacterial adhesins
Epidemiology The study of the distribution and determinants of diseases of infectious origin and other etiologies, injuries, and other health states in populations, and the use of this information to prevent or control health problems and to improve health
Chain of transmission The agent, a source for the agent, a route of exit from the reservoir or source host (e.g., the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts), a suitable mode from the source to the new susceptible host, and a route of entry into the new susceptible host
Vertical transmission From mother to fetus or newborn prior to or during delivery
Horizontal transmission Spread between individuals within the population at risk
Direct contact transmisison Involves physical contact (e..g, through shaking of hands, kissing, or sexual intercourse) between the infected host and the susceptible
Indirect contact transmission May involve contaminated vehicles (fomites), such as shared eating utensils, toys in a child care facility, or improperly sterilized surgical equipment or non-disposable needles and syringes
Created by: AlneciaPHS