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B4 Glossary AW

Glossary of Key Words for B4 It's a Green World

TermDefinition
Active Transport In active transport, cells use energy to transport substances through cell membranes against a concentration gradient.
Biodiversity Range of living organisms in a habitat.
Biofuels Fuels made from plants-these can be burned in power stations.
Biological control A natural predator is released to reduce the number of pests infesting a crop.
Carotene Plant pigment involved in photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll Pigment found in plants which is used in photosynthesis (gives plants their green colour).
Chloroplast a cell structure found in green plants that contains chlorophyll.
Clone Genetically identical copy.
Community All the plants and animals living in an ecosystem, e.g. a garden.
Compost Dead and decaying plant material.
Concentration The amount of chemical dissolved in a certain volume of solution.
Crenation When red blood cells shrink in concentrated solutions, they look partly deflated.
Crop rotation System of growing crops in sequence.
Crop sprayer Charges fertiliser, pesticides etc. to give wider, even rotation.
Decay To rot.
Deciduous Type of tree that loses its leaves in winter.
Decomposer An organism that breaks down dead organic matter.
Detritivore An organism that eats dead material, e.g. an earthworm.
Detritus The dead and semi-decayed remains of living things.
Diffuse When particles diffuse they spread out.
Ecosystem An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system.(Wikipedia)
Environment The surroundings of an object.
Fertiliser Chemical put on soil to increase fertility and allow better growth of crop plants.
Fungicide Chemical used to kill fungi.
Greenhouse gas Any of the gases whose absorption of solar radiation is responsible for the greenhouse effect, e.g. carbon dioxide, methane.
Habitat Where an organism lives, e.g. the worm’s habitat is the soil.
Herbicide Chemical used to kill weeds.
Hydrophonics Growing plants in mineral solutions without the need for soil.
Inbreeding Breeding closely related animals.
Insecticide A chemical that can kill an insect.
Intensive farming Farming that uses a lot of artificial fertilisers and energy to produce a high yield per farm worker.
Kite diagram Method of displaying results from a transect line.
Lysis To split apart.
Meristem Tips of roots and shoots where cell division and elongation takes place.
Microbes Tiny microscopic organisms.
Minerals Natural solid materials with a fixed chemical composition and structure, rocks are made of collections of minerals; mineral nutrients in our diet are things like calcium and iron, they are simple chemicals needed for health.
Mitochondria Structures in a cell where respiration takes place.
Multicellular organism Organisms made up of many specialised cells.
Nitrate residue Unwanted residues sometimes found in water contaminated by farm run-off.
Organic food Food produced by organic farming using no artificial fertilisers or pesticides.
Osmosis When solutions of different concentrations are separated by a partially-permeable membrane, water molecules pass through the membrane moving from the dilute solution to the more concentrated one to reduce the difference.
Palisade cells Tightly packed together cells found on the upper side of a leaf.
Partially permeable membrane A membrane that allows some small particles to pass through but not larger molecules.
Pesticide residue Unwanted residues sometimes found in water contaminated by local pesticide use.
Phloem Specialised transporting cells which form tubules in plants to carry sugars from leaves to other parts of the plant.
Photosynthesis Process carried out by green plants where sunlight, carbon dioxide and water are used to produce glucose and oxygen.
Plantlets Small plants formed by strawberries during asexual reproduction.
Plasmolysis The shrinking of a plant cell due to loss of water, the cell membrane pull away.
Pollutants Unwanted residues that can sometimes cause damage.
Pollute Contaminate or destroy the environment.
Population Group of organisms of the same species.
Respiration Process occurring in living things where oxygen is used to release the energy in foods.
Ribosome Structures in a cell where protein synthesis takes place.
Saprophyte An organism that breaks down dead organic matter, usually used to refer to fungi.
Selective breeding Process of breeding organisms with the desired characteristics.
Spongy mesophyll cells Found in the middle of a leaf with an irregular shape and large air spaces between them.
Sterilise Killing all the organisms in and area, usually used to mean killing micro-organisms.
Stomata (singular stoma) Small holes in the surface of leaves which allow gases in and out of leaves.
Tissue culture Process that uses small sections of tissue to clone plants.
Toxic A toxic substance is one which is poisonous, e.g. toxic waste.
Transect Line across an area to sample organisms.
Turgid Plant cells which are full of water with their walls bowed out and pushing against neighbouring cells.
Turgor pressure The pressure exerted on the cell membrane by the cell wall when the cell is fully inflated.
Unicellular organisms Organisms made of only one cell.
Vascular bundle Group of xylem and phloem cells.
Xanthophylls Plant pigments involved in photosynthesis.
Xylem Cells specialised for transporting water through a plant; xylem cells have thick walls, no cytoplasm and are dead, their end wall breaks down and they form a continuous tube.
Created by: Brimsham