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Protein Synthesis

Protein Synthesis Vocab

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics.
mRNA messenger RNA, a single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes the information to make a protein.
Nucleotide in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.
RNA (ribonucleic acid), a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis.
Transcription the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template.
tRNA Transfer RNA, an RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to the growing end of a polypeptide chain during translation.
rRNA ribosomal RNA, an organelle that contains most of the RNA in the cell and that is responsible for ribosome function.
Translation the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains.
Protein An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
Amino Acid Any one of 20 different organic molecules that containing both a carboxyl and an amino group and combine to form proteins.
Codon A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that encodes a particular amino acid, start signal or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
Anticodon group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
Created by: Christensent