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B2 Glossary AW

Glossary of key words for B2- Understanding our Environment.

TermDefinition
Adaptation Features that organisms have to help them survive in their environment.
Algal bloom A thick mat of algae near the surface of water which stops sunlight getting through.
Amphibians Animals with a moist permeable skin.
Binomial system The scientific way of naming an organism.
Bidegradable A biodegradable material can be broken down by micro-organisms.
Biomass Waste wood and other natural materials which are burned in power stations.
Birds Animals that have feathers.
Captive breeding Breeding a species in zoos to maintain the wild population.
Carbon cycle A natural cycle through which carbon moves by respiration, photosynthesis, and combustion in the form of carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide Gas present in the atmosphere at a low percentage but important in respiration, photosynthesis and combustion.
Carbon footprint The total amount of greenhouse gases given off by a person in a given time.
Carnivore An animal that eats other animals.
Conservation A way of protecting a species or environment.
Consumer Organism in a food chain that gets its energy from eating food.
Cyclic fluctuation The rise and fall of a population.
Decay To rot.
Decomposer Organisms that break down dead animals or plants.
Deforestation Removal of large area of trees.
Denitrifying-bacteria Bacteria that convert nitrates into nitrogen gas.
Diet What a person eats.
Ecological niche The role of an organism within an ecosystem.
Egestion The way an animal gets rid of undigested food waste called faeces.
Endangered A species where the numbers are so low they could become extinct.
Eutrophication When waterways become too rich with nutrients (from fertilisers) which allows algae to grow wildly and use up all the oxygen.
Evolution The gradual change of in organisms over millions of years caused by random mutations and natural selection.
Excretion The process of getting rid of waste from the body.
Exponential growth The ever increasing growth of the human population.
Extinct When all members of a species have died out.
Finite resource Resources such as oil which will eventually run out.
Fish Animals with scales and gills.
Food Part of out diet that provides energy.
Habitat The place where an organism lives.
Herbivore Animals that eat plants.
Hybrid The infertile offspring produced when two animals of different species breed.
Indicator species Organisms used to measure the level of pollution in water or air.
Invertebrate Animal without a backbone.
Legume A plant that has bacteria inside root nodules that provide the plant with nitrates.
Mammal Animals that have fur and produce milk for their young.
Microbe Very small organism (living thing) which can only be viewed through a microscope- also known as a micr-organism.
Micro-organism Very small organism (living thing) which can only be viewed through a microscope- also known as a microbe.
Mutation Where the DNA within cells have been altered (this happens in cancer).
Mutualism A relationship in which both organisms benefit.
Natural selection Process by which “good” characteristics that can be passed on in genes become more common in a population over many generations (“good” characteristics mean that the organism has an advantage which makes it more likely to survie).
Nitrifying-bacteria Bacteria that convert ammonia into nitrates.
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria Bacteria that convert ammonia into nitrates.
Nitrogenous fertiliser A fertiliser which contains a nitrogen compound.
Omnivore Animal that eats plants and other animals.
Parasite Organism which lives on (or inside) the body of another organism.
Photosynthesis Process carried out where carbon dioxide and water, in the presence of sunlight, produce glucose and oxygen.
Phototropism A plant’s growth response to light.
Pollination The process of transferring pollen from one plant to another.
Population The number of one species in a habitat.
Predator Animal which preys on (and eats) another animal.
Prey Animals which are eaten by predators.
Producers Organisms in a food chain that make food using sunlight.
Recycle To reuse materials.
Reptile Cold blooded vertebrates having an external covering of scales or horny plates.
Respiration Process occurring in living things where oxygen is used to release the energy in foods.
Species Basic category of biological classification, composed of individuals that resemble one another, can breed amongst themselves, but cannot breed with members of another species.
Sustainable development Managing a resource so that it does not run out.
Trophic level The stages in a food chain.
Variation The differences between individuals (because we all have slight variation in our genes).
Vegan A type of diet/a person who does not eat animals or animal products.
Vegetarian A type of diet/a person who does not eat meat or fish.
Vertebrate Animal with a backbone.
Created by: Brimsham