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B1 Glossary AW

Glossary of key words for B1- Understanding Organisms

Accommodation the eyes ability to change focus.
Acetylcholin In the brain: a neurotransmitter chemical that diffuses across synapse.
Active immunity You have immunity if your immune system recognises as pathogen and fights it.
Allele Inherited characteristics are carried as pairs of alleles on pairs of chromosomes. Different forms of a gene are different alleles.
Antibody Protein normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralises, thus producing an immune response.
Antigen Any substance that stimulates the production of antibodies- antigens on the surface of red blood cells determine blood group.
Antiviral drug Therapeutic drug acting to kill viruses.
Arteries Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
Auxin A type of plant hormone.
Axon Part of a neurone that carries nerve impulse.
Binocular vision Part of vision seen by both eyes.
Binomial system The scientific way of naming an organism.
Blind trial A drugs trial where volunteers do not know which treatment they are receiving.
Blood groups Blood falls into one of four groups: A, B, AB or O.
Blood pressure Force with which blood presses against the walls of vessels.
Blood suger level Amount of glucose in the blood.
Body mass index (BMI) Measure of someone’s weight in relation to their height.
Cell membrane Layer around a cell which helps to control substances entering and leaving the cell.
Central nervous system (CNS) Collectively the brain and spinal cord.
Cholesterol A fatty substance which can block blood vessels.
Contagious A disease that spreads directly from person to person.
Dehydration The result of body losing too much water.
Denatured An enzyme is denatured if its shape changes so that the substrate cannot fit into the active site.
Depressant A drug that slows down the working of the brain.
Diastolic pressure The lowest point that your blood pressure reaches as the heart relaxes between beats/
Diet What a person eats.
Dominant allele/ characteristic An allele that will produce the characteristic if present.
EAR (for protein) Estimated average daily requirement of protein in diet.
Egestion The way an animal gets rid of undigested food waste called faeces.
Essential elements The three elements, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium that are essential for the growth of plants.
Excretion The process of getting rid of waste from the body.
First class protein Proteins from meat and fish which contain all essential amino acids.
Food Part of our diet that provides energy.
Gametes The male and female sex cells ( sperm and eggs).
Gene Section of DNA that codes for a particular characteristic.
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism.
Geotropism A plant’s growth response to gravity.
Germinate The growth of a seed into a plant.
Gibberellic acid A plant hormone that speeds up germination.
Haemoglobin Chemical found in red blood cells which carries oxygen.
Hallucinogen A drug, like LSD, that gives the user hallucinations.
Heat stroke Result of the body being too hot; skin is cold, pulse is weak.
Heterozygous A person who has two different alleles for an inherited characteristic, e.g. someone with blond hair may also carry an allele for red hair.
Homozygous A person who has two alleles that are the same for an inherited feature, e.g. a blue eyed person will have two blue alleles for eye colour.
Hormones Chemicals that act on target organs in the body ( hormones are made by the body in special glands).
Hypothalamus A small gland in the brain, detects temperature of blood.
Hypothermia A condition caused by the body getting too cold, which can lead to death if untreated.
Kwashiorkor An illness caused by protein deficiency due to lack of food. Sufferers often have swollen bellies caused by retention of fluid in the abdomen.
Melanin The group of naturally occurring dark pigments, especially the pigment found in skin, hair fur and feathers.
Microorganism Very small organism (living thing) which can only be viewed through a microscope- also known as a microbe.
Microbe Very small organism (living thing) which can only be viewed through a microscope- also known as a microorganism.
Monocular vision Part of vision only seen by one eye.
Monmohybrid cross A cross between two organisms that differ by a single characteristic. Used to follow the inheritance of a single pair of genes.
Motor neurone Nerve cells carrying information from the central nervous system to muscles.
Mutation Where DNA within cells have been altered (this happens in cancer).
Obesity A medical condition where the amount of body fat is so great that it harms health.
Painkiller A drug that stops nerve impulses so pain is not felt.
Parasite Organism which lives on (or inside) the body of another organism.
Pathogen Harmful organism which invades the body and causes disease.
Performance enhancer A drug used to improve performance in a sporting event.
Peripheral nervous system Network of nerves leading to and from the brain and spinal cord.
Phenotype The characteristic that is shown/ expressed.
Placebo A dummy pill.
Plant hormones Hormones that control various plant processes such as growth and germination.
Plaque A build up of cholesterol in a blood vessel (which may block it)
Radiotherapy Using ionising radiation to kill cancer in the body.
Recessive Allele/ Characteristic Two recessive alleles needed to produce a characteristic.
Reflex A muscular action that we take without thinking about.
Second class proteins Proteins from plants which only contain some essential amino acids.
Sensory neurone Nerve cell carrying information from receptors to central nervous system.
Sex chromosomes A pair of chromosomes that determine gender, XX in female, XY in male.
Stimulant A drug that speeds up the working of the brain.
Stroke Sudden change in blood flow to the brain- can be fatal.
Synapse Gap between two neurons.
Systolic pressure The highest point that your blood pressure reaches as the heart beats to pump blood through your body.
Thrombosis Blood clot in a blood vessel causing it to be blocked.
Toxin Poisonous substance (pathogens make toxins which cause us to feel ill).
Units of alcohol Measurement of alcoholic content of a drink.
Vasoconstriction In cold conditions the diameter of small blood vessels near the surface of the body decreases- this reduces the flow of blood.
Vasodilation In hot conditions the diameter of small blood vessels near the surface of the body increases- this increases the flow of blood.
Vector An animal which carries a pathogen without suffering from it.
Withdrawal symptoms Reactions when a person stops taking a drug.
Alcohol Substance made by the fermentation of yeast.
Ethene A plant hormone that speeds up fruit ripening.
Created by: Brimsham