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Biology 1010-103

Mid-Term Study Criteria

Renewable Resources Natural Resources that are replenished after use as long as the rate of consumption does not exceed the rate of replacement.
Non-Renewable Resources Natural resources that cannot easily be replaced; fossil fuels are an example.
Ecosystem The living and nonliving components of an environment, including the communities of organisms present and the physical and chemical environment with which they interact.
Habitat The physical environment where an organism lives and to which it is adapted.
Biome Large, geographically cohesive regions whose defining vegetation, its plant life, is determined principally by climate factors like temperature and rainfall.
Aquatic: Marine This biome covers about three-fourths of the earth and includes the oceans, coral reefs, and estuaries.
Aquatic: Freshwater A biome characterized by having low salt concentration. Freshwater biomes include ponds and lakes, rivers and streams, and wetlands.
Tropical Forest Tropical forests are biomes characterized by warm temperatures and sufficient rainfall to support the growth of trees. Tropical forests may be deciduous or evergreen, depending on the presence of a dry season.
Temperate Forest Characterized by moderate winters and rainfall. Trees are mostly evergreen or deciduous, dropping their leaves in winter.
Grassland A biome characterized by perennial grasses and other non-woody plants. In North America, the prairies are examples of grasslands.
Desert A biome characterized by extreme dryness. Cold deserts experience cold winters and hot summers, while hot deserts are uniformly warm throughout the year.
Taiga A biome characterized by evergreen trees, with long and cold winters and only short summers.
Tundra A biome that occurs in the Arctic and mountain regions. Characterized by low growing vegetation and a layer of permafrost (frozen all year long) very close to the surface of the soil.
Keystone Species Species on which other species depend, and whose removal has a dramatic impact on the community.
Community A group of interacting population of different species living together in the same area.
Stamen The male reproductive structure of a flower, made up of a filament and an anther.
Pistil The female reproductive structure of a flower, made up of a stigma, style, and ovary.
Stigma The sticky "landing pad" for pollen on the pistil.
Style The tube-like structure that leads from the stigma to the ovary.
Food Chain A linked series of feeding relationships in a community in which organisms further up the chain feed on the ones below.
Food Web A complex interconnection of feeding relationships in a community.
Parasitism A type of symbiosis, a close relationship between two species, in which one species clearly benefits, and one species clearly loses. Because it involves one species feeding on another, parasitism is also a form of predation.
Symbiosis A relationship is which two different organisms live together, often interdependently.
Mutualism A type of symbiotic relationship in which both members benefit; a "win-win" relationship.
Commensalism A type of symbiotic relationship in which one member benefits and the other is unharmed.
Niche The space, environmental conditions, and resources that a species needs in order to survive and reproduce.
Competitive Exclusion Principle The concept that when two species compete for resources in an identical niche, one is inevitably driven to extinction.
Ecology The study of the interactions between organisms and between organisms and their nonliving environment.
Population A group of organisms of the same species living and interacting in a particular area.
Community Interacting populations of different species in a defined habitat.
Ecosystem All the living organisms in an area and the nonliving components of the environment with which they interact.
Distribution Pattern The way the organisms are distributed in geographic space, which depends on resources and interactions with other members of the population.
Random Individuals are equally likely to be anywhere within the area.
Clumped High-density clumps are separated by area of low abundance.
Uniform Individuals maximize space between them by being uniformly spaced.
Growth Rate The difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a given population; also known as the rate of natural increase.
Immigration The movement of individuals into a population.
Emigration The movement of individuals out of a population.
Exponential Growth The unrestricted growth of a population increasing at a constant growth rate.
Habitat The physical environment where an organism lives and to which it is adapted.
Logistic Growth A pattern of growth that starts off fast and then levels off as the population reaches the carrying capacity of the environment.
Carrying Capacity The maximum population size that a given environment or habitat can support given its food supply and other natural resources.
Population Density The number or organisms per unit area.
Density-Dependent Factors A factor whose influence on population size and growth depends on the number and crowding of individuals in the population (for example, predation).
Biotic Refers to the living components of an environment.
Density-Independent Factors A factor that can influence population size and growth regardless of the numbers and crowding within a population (for example, weather).
Abiotic Refers to the nonliving components of an environment, such as temperature and precipitation.
Bryophytes Example: Cat's tail moss Nonvascular, so can't move water throughout their bodies Small plants living in damp environments Nonflowering; no seeds Reproduction relies on water
Ferns Example: Sword Fern Vascular, so can live in drier environments and move water throughout their bodies Nonflowering; no seeds Reproduction relies on water and involves spores
Gymnosperms Example: Douglas fir Vascular, so cell wall of vascular cells support plant body to great heights Seeds are "exposed" (typically held in cones)
Angiosperms Example: Big-Leaf maple Vascular, so cell walls of vascular cells support plant body to great heights Flowers are important in reproduction Seeds are contained within fruit
Bryophyte A nonvascular plant that does not produce seeds.
Vascular Plant A plant with tissues that transport water and nutrients through the plant body.
Sponges E.g., Sea Sponge No organized tissues No Symmetry
Cnidarians E.g., Jellyfish Radial Symmetry Aquatic and marine habitat
Flatworms E.g., Flatworms Simplest animal with bilateral symmetry
Mollusks E.g., Clam Soft body Single, hard outer shell
Annelids E.g., Earthworm Long segmented body
Nematodes E.g., Roundworm Long un-segmented body
Arthropods E.g., Insect Exoskeleton Segmented body Jointed legs
Echinoderms E.g., Starfish Endoskeleton Spiny outer skin
Chordates E.g., Dog Vertebrates have a backbone and spinal chord
Fungus (Plural: Fungi) A unicellular or multicellular eukaryotic organism that obtains nutrients by secreting digestive enzymes onto organic matter and absorbing the digested product.
Decomposer An organism such as a fungus or bacterium that digests and used the organic molecules in dead organisms as sources of nutrients and energy.
Hypha (Plural: Hyphae) A long, threadlike structure through which fungi absorb nutrients.
Mycelium (Plural: Mycelia) A spreading mass of interwoven hyphae that forms the often subterranean body of multicellular fungi.
Protist A eukaryote that cannot be classified as a plant, animal, or fungus; usually unicellular.
Alga (Plural: Algae) A uni- or multicellular photosynthetic protist.
Prokaryote A usually unicellular organism whose cell lacks internal membrane-bound organelles and whose DNA is not contained within a nucleus.
Bacteria One of the two domains of prokaryotic life; the other is Archaea.
Flagella (Singular: Flagellum) Whip-like appendages extending from the surface of some bacteria, used in movement of the cell.
Pili (Singular: Pilus) Short, hair-like appendages extending from the surface of some bacteria, used to adhere to surfaces.
Capsule A sticky coating surrounding some bacterial cells that adheres to surfaces.
Adaptive Radiation The spreading and diversification of organisms that occur when they colonize a new habitat.
Punctuated Equilibrium Periodic bursts of species change as a result of sudden environmental change.
Biogeography The study of how organisms are distributed in geographical space.
Plate Tectonics The movement of Earth's upper mantle and crust, which influences the geographical distribution of landmasses and organisms.
Convergent Evolution The process by which organisms that are not closely related evolve similar adaptations as a result of independent episodes of natural selection. Ex. Starfish
Taxonomy The process of identifying, naming, and classifying organisms on the basis of shared traits.
Domain The highest category in the modern system of classification; there are three domains, Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
Descent with Modification Darwin's term for evolution, combining the ideas that all living things are related and that organisms have changed over time.
Fossils The preserved remains of impressions of once-living organisms.
Radiometric Dating The use of radioactive isotopes as a measure for determining the age of a rock or fossil.
Relative Dating Determining the age of a fossil from its position relative to layers of rock or fossils of known age.
Binary Fission A type of asexual reproduction in which one parental cell divides into two.
Fitness The relative ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
Directional Selection A type of natural selection in which organisms with phenotypes at one end of a spectrum are favored by the environment.
Stabilizing Selection A type of natural selection in which organisms near the middle of the phenotypic range of variation are favored by the environment.
Diversifying Selection A type of natural selection in which organisms with phenotypes at both extremes of the phenotypic range are favored by the environment.
Created by: tblackdog