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HES 403- Exam 4

QuestionAnswer
Main rule of sports nutrition be flexible; no such thing as one size fits all
Pre and post exercise muscle glycogen best condition= HG glycogen+cho (more utilization, higher average power, shorter time to complete TT)
CHO oral sensor shorter time to complete TT with CHO rinse vs. H2O or artificial sweetener (30 sec swishing better)
Soreness and protein if eaten right after exercise, decreased muscle soreness
MCT vs LCT more water soluble, absorped without lipase, fast absorption, less dependent on carnitine, fast oxidation
Women vs. men CHO/lipid women burn more lipid than men do
DSHEA diet supplement health education act; deregulated dietary supplements
Problems with supplements sometimes active ingredient isn’t there, contaminants
Ergogenic aid definition substance/procedure/object that enhances performance through strength, speed, reaction time, or endurance
Five natures of action of ergogenic aids muscle fiber, delay fatigue/perception, fuel, recovery, other organs (heart/liver/CV/CNS/respiratory)
Problems with Xenadrine publications were not about Xenadrine
4 classes of ergogenic aids stimulants, anabolic agents, nutritional supplements, other (blood doping)
caffeine running time significantly faster
enough caffeine in muscle fibers will cause twitch; interacts with RyR
3 negative impacts of steroids in males prostate enlargement, testicular atrophy, fewer sperm
3 negative impacts of steroids in females breast regression, masculinization, menstrual disruption
androstenedione (in synthesis pathway) increased estrogen, no effect on testosterone, no increase in strength
HGH increases lipolysis and blood glucose; can cause acromegaly
Carnitine supplementation increased strength, fat free mass; only 20% is available for muscle (not shown to enhance sprint performance)
HMB metabolite of leucine; increases muscle mass and lowers body fat, increases immune function
What was the problem/surprise with HMB diagrams? only a few weeks (no hypertrophy in this time)
What has most BCAA research been on? metabolic processes and not performance
Risks of blood doping blood clots, transfusion complications, heart failure
VO2 max and fatigue after blood doping VO2 max elevated for 16 weeks, fatigue improvements decline over 16 weeks (but still significant)
Possible long-term side effects of O2 supplementation blindness, oxidation
Bicarbonate supplementation pH buffering, increased performance in 1-7min duration all-out
Obese females are __x more likely to get type 2 diabetes 12.4x
Leptin is arguably an anti-starvation hormone/not anti-obesity because responds to under feeding but not over feeding
Leptin resistance saturated blood-brain-barrier
Minnesota starvation experiment lost 30% of body mass; gained more fat mass back
What is lost in week 1 of weight loss? mostly water
Weight loss should not exceed 1-2 pounds per week
Waist circumference very robust correlation between central subcutaneous and visceral
Polygenic vs. monogenic almost all diseases are polygenic
Three possible targets of weight loss medications modify absorption, serotonin, uncouplers
Orlistat inhibits pancreatic lipase
Sibutramine non-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
DNP uncoupler
Initial problem in diabetes likely defect in lipid metabolism
3 rare types of diabetes monogenic (insulin receptor), gestational, trauma/drug-induced
how do type II diabetics become insulin dependent? beta cell fatigue (still type II)
exercise in both types of diabetes I may help, II definitely helps
feet type I sensory issues, wound healing slower, less blood flow (most common reason for amputations)
how does exercise enhance insulin sensitivity? non-insulin dependent glut4 translocation and some glut1 present as well
2 diagnoses for diabetes OGTT >200 mg/dL after 2 hours; fasting 126 mg/dL
why can’t type 1 diabetes just have transplant? inconsistent antigen; would just kill those beta cells
two types of medications for diabetes insulin secretagogues, insulin sensitizers
most common CVD CHD
atherosclerosis narrowing of arteries due to plaque build-up
coronary heart disease atherosclerosis in coronary arteries
ischemia deficiency in blood to a tissue due to CAD
infarction tissue necrosis due to ischemia
what causes heart failure? previous heart attack
congestive heart failure when ejection fraction is down below 10-15% (normally 60%); edema (especially in lungs)
unstable vs. stable clots unstable have fibrous clot, stable under endothelium; unstable much more dangerous b/c may get lodged elsewhere
what was wrong with the artery cross section diagram? though it is larger w/ consistent exercise, there will still be plaque
hypertension problems arteries become less elastic over time, left ventricular hypertrophy
hypertension incidence 1 in 4 US adults
how does digitalis work? inhibits Na/K ATPase, so body starts to exchange Ca for Na and Ca helps contractility (for congestive heart failure)
stroke aka cerebral vascular accident; cerebral infarction or cerebral hemorrhage
biggest risk factor for CAD sedentary lifestyle
Created by: melaniebeale