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HSO109 pt 11

QuestionAnswer
What are sensory receptors? They are specialised cells or cell processes that detect changes inside or outside the body
What are general senses - They provide information about the body and its environment - They include: temperature, pain, touch, pressure, vibration and proprioception
What are example of special senses? - Smell - Taste - Sight - Equilibrium (balance) - Hearing
What do sensory receptors do? - They detect a stimulus and transduce it into an action potential which is sent to the CNS - Frequency of arriving action potentials in CNS brings information about strength, duration and variation of stimulus - Some info reaches our awareness
Define transduce: Converts energy into another form
What are some characteristics of sensory receptors? Specificity (type of stimulus): - Free nerve endings (non specific eg. chemical, pressure, temp, trauma) - The eyes visual receptors (v specific, light only) Receptive field: (location of stimulus)
What are tonic receptors? - They're always active - Change in rate when a change in stimulus occurs - Slow-adapting receptors (pain)
What are phasic receptors? - Normally inactive - Become active when a change in stimulus occurs - Fast-adapting receptors (temp)
What are pain receptors? - Tonic receptors - Found in the skin, joints, bones and blood vessels - Free nerve endings - Have large receptive fields - 3 main types: temp, mechanical & chemical - All 3 activated by strong stimuli - Myelinated axons - fast pain
What are pain receptors? (cont.) - Unmyelinated axons - slow pain, burning, aching sensations
What are temperature receptors? - Phasic receptors - Found in the skin, skeletal muscles, the liver - Travel along same pathway as pain sensations
What are mechanoreceptors? (touch, pressure, twist, stretch) - Cell membranes contain mechanically regulated ion channels - 3 main types: tactile, baroreceptors, proprioceptors
What are tactile receptors? - Detect info about texture, shape and pulsation - Fine touch = small receptive fields - Crude tough = large receptive fields - Can be simple or complex
What are the 6 types of tactile receptors? - Free nerve endings: skin - Root hair plexus: movement across body - Tactile discs: skin - Tactile corpuscles: eyelids, fingertips - Lamellated corpuscles: fingers, mammary glands - Ruffini corpuscles: deep in skin
What are baroreceptors? - Monitor change in pressure - Found in the blood vessels, respiratory system - Type of stretch receptor - Phasic: respond rapidly to changes and then adapt
What are proprioceptors? - Monitor position of joints, muscle contraction - 3 types: muscle spindles (muscle length and stretch reflex), golgi tendon organs (tendon tension), joint capsule (pressure and tension in joint)
What are chemoreceptors? - Detect changes in chemical concentration - Phasic - Brain, carotid arteries, aorta - Monitor pH, CO2 and O2 levels
What does the posterior column pathway involve? - Fine touch - Vibration - Ventral pressure - Proprioception
What does the spinothalamic pathway involve? - Pain - Temperature
What does the spinocerebellar pathway involve? - Proprioception
What is the somatic nervous system? - An efferent division of the nervous system - Output of SNS is under voluntary control - Controls skeletal muscle contraction - Involves motor pathways - Several centers in cerebrum, diencephalon and brain stem issue somatic motor commands
What are upper motor neurons? - The cell body lies in a CNS process center - Synapses on the lower motor neuron - Activity in upper motor neuron may facilitate or inhibit lower motor neuron
What are lower motor neurons? - Triggers a contraction in innervated muscle - destruction or damage to a lower motor neuron eliminates voluntary and reflex control over innervated motor unit
Created by: 974869485886242