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CH 15 Evolution

CP CH 15 evolution for exam review

Who is the father of modern day evolution? charles darwin
charles darwin believed that all organisms descended from a .... common ancestor
what is natural selection the process in which an organisms becomes better suited to its environment "survival of the fittest"
what is the name of Darwin's book? on the origin of species
what components cause natural selection to occur? genetic variation among organisms of the same species
what are homologous structures? structures within organisms that anatomically look similar which provides evidence that all organisms have a common ancestor
what are vestigial structures? structures within an organism that no longer serve a purpose but can provide evidence of evolution. ex: tailbone and wisdom teeth in humans
besides homologous and vestigial structures what is other evidence of evolution? similarities in proteins and DNA sequences between organisms and the fossil record
what is an adaptation? a trait that allows an organism to be better suited for its environment
what is convergent evolution? when organisms do NOT share a common ancestor but develop similar characteristics.
what is an example of convergent evolution? The sugar glider in australia and the flying squirrel of north america both have extra skin flaps that allow the creatures to fly between the trees
what is divergent evolution? when organisms share a common ancestor but have developed different traits
what is an example of divergent evolution? darwins finches all share a common ancestor but have different beaks due to eating different things
what is co-evolution? when organisms become more adapted over time to each other's prescense
what is an example of co-evolution? humming bird beaks have evolved to be longer because the flowers the feed from and pollinate have evolved to be deeper
how does variation occur? mutation, genes recombine during sexual reproduction, the environment can change genes, and others...
what is genetic drift? when random events by chance cause a change in the gene pool. this is very detrimental to small populations
what is allopatric speciation? when a new species occurs due to a single species being geographically isolated
what is sympatric speciation? when a new species occurs due to different preference within the same environment.
what is an example of sympatric speciation? apple maggot flies used to only lay their eggs on apples. Then some began to lay their eggs on hawthorns (similar to apples) in the same environment as the apples. Eventually they became two different species
what is artificial selection? when humans manipulate organisms/breed them for desired traits.
what are some examples of how humans have used artificial selection? dog/pigeon breeding, domesticating animals to use them in farming, creating more robust/bigger crop yields and much more
what are analogous structures? structures that are similar in function due to the environment not because of a common ancestor. ex: shark's fin and a dolphin's fin.
Created by: ruth.baker