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Biology Final Review

QuestionAnswer
What did Griffith observe when he injected into mice a mixture of heat-killed disease- causing bacteria and live harmless bacteria? the mice developed pneumoia
Which of the following is a nucleotide found in DNA? deoxyribose+phosphate group+cytosine
DNA replication results in two DNA molecules, each with one new strand and one original strand.
During mitosis the... DNA molecules become more tightly coiled
Unlike DNA, RNA contains... uracil.
Which type(s) of RNA is (are) involved in protein synthesis? messenger RNA and transfer RNA
During transcription, an RNA molecule is formed inside the nucleus
How many codons are needed to specify three amino acids? 3
What type of RNA functions as a blueprint of the genetic code? mRNA
Which of the following is NOT a gene mutation? inversion
As a cell grows, it -places more demands on its DNA -uses up food and oxygen more quickly -has more trouble moving enough materials across its cell membrane
When during the cell cycle are chromosomes visible? only during cell divison
Which event occurs during interphase? DNA replicates
The cell cycle is the series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
Which of the following is a phase of mitosis? prophase
During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up along the middle of the dividing cell? metaphase
What is the role of the spindle during mitosis? It helps separate the chromosomes.
The two main stages of cell division are called mitosis and cytokinesis
One difference between cell division in plant cells and in animal cells is that plant cells have a cell plate
During normal mitotic cell division, a parent cell having four chromosomes will produce two daughter cells, each containing four chromosomes
Which of the following is a factor that can stop normal cells from growing? contact with other cells
Cancer is a disorder in which some cells have lost the ability to control their growth rate
Cancer cells form masses of cells called tumors
Cancer affects multicellular organisms
The number of chromosomes in a gamete is respected by the symbol N
If an organism's diploid number is 12, it's haploid number is 6
Gametes are produced by the process of meiosis
Chromosomes form tetards during prophase 1 of meiosis
What happens between meiosis 1 and meiosis 2 that reduces the number of chromosomes? replication does not occur
Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of haploid cells
Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of four genetically identical cells
How many chromosomes do humans have? 46
Which of the following are shown in a karyotype? -homologous chromosomes -sex chromosomes -autosomes
In humans, a male has one X chromosome and one Y chromosome
Human females produce egg cells that have one X chromosome
The failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis is called nondisjunction
Because the X chromosome contains genes that are vital for normal development, no baby has been born without an X chromosome
Which of the following combinations of sex chromosomes represents a female? XX
Nondisjunction can involve -autosomes -sex chromosomes -homologous chromosomes
Darwin noticed that many organisms seemed well suited to surviving in the environment they inhabited
The species of finches that Charles Darwin found on the Galapagos Islands displayed structural adaptations. One of the adaptations that Darwin noted was the birds different shaped beaks
Based on the adaptations Charles Darwin observed in finches and tortoises in the Galapagos, he wondered if species living on different islands had once been members of the same species
Darwin began to formulate his concept of evolution by natural selection after observations of many species and their geographical location
James Hutton's and Charles Lyell's work suggests that Earth is many millions of years old
In the 1800's Charles Lyell emphasized that past geological events must be explained in terms of processes observable today
One scientist who attempted to explain how rock layers form and change over time was James Hutton
James Hutton's and Charles Lyell's work was important to Darwin because these scientists suggested that Earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed that organisms Body structure can change according to the actions of the organisms
In an experiment, suppose that the wings of fruit flies were clipped short for fifty generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal-length wings. This observation would tend to disprove the idea that evolution is based on inheritance of acquired characteristics
The idea that only famine, disease, and war could prevent the endless growth of the human populations was presented by Thomas Malthus
Darwin realized that the economist Malthus's theory of population control could be generalized to any population of organisms
In 1859, Charles Darwin published his revolutionary scientific ideas in a work titled On the Origin of Species
Darwin was prompted to publish his theory of evolution by an essay by Wallace on evolution
When Darwin returned from the voyage of the Beagle, he wrote about his ideas but waited many years to publish them
According to Darwin's theory of natural selection, individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. Their survival is due to the possession of inherited adaptations that maximize fitness
When farmers select animals or plants to use for breeding, they look for natural variations that are present in a species
When a farmer breeds only his or her best livestock, the process involved is artificial selection
When lions prey on a herd of antelopes, some antelopes are killed and some escape. Which part of Darwin's concept of natural selection might be used to describe this situation? survival of the fittest
Which statement about the members of a population that live long enough to reproduce is consistent with the theory of natural selection? they are the ones that are best adapted to survive in their enviorment
Charles Darwin called the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its specific environment fitness
In humans, the pelvis and femur, or thigh bone, are involved in walking. In whales, the pelvis and femur are examples of vestigial structures
Modern sea star larvae resemble some primitive vertebrate larvae. This similarity may suggest that primitive vertebrates share a common ancestor with sea stars
Darwin's concept of evolution was NOT influenced by knowledge about the structure of DNA
People of Darwin's time understood that fossils were preserved remains of ancient organisms
The hypothesis that species change over time by natural selection was proposed by Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin's theory of evolution explains all of the following EXCEPT how inherited traits are passed from parent to offspring
Darwin's theory of evolution suggests that species change over time
Darwin's theory of evolution is based on the idea(s) of heritable variation and natural selection
Which concept is NOT included in the modern theory of evolution transmission of acquired characteristics
Which phrase best defines evolution by natural selection a process of change in species over time
Examples of fossils include preserved -eggs -footprints -body parts
What proportion of all species that have ever lived has become extinct? more than 99 percent
To compare the relative ages of fossils, scientists sometimes use an easily recognized species called a(an) index fossil
Created by: alyb8