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Final Exam

Urinary system: location of the kidney consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra against the back muscles in the upper abdominal area. right kidney,sits a little lower than the left to accommodate the liver.
where are nephrons in the kdney
uric acid comes from where? ? metabolism of nucleic acids
urine goes from......to........ glomerulus, continues through the renal tubules, and proceeds through a ureter into the bladder. the wall of the bladder stretch and become thinner as it fills. Finally, urine is excreted through the urethra.
what is reabsorbed the the tubules sodium and potassium
filtrate does not typically contain what? proteins
movement of urine ? peristalsis movement
identify body sections from chapter 1 ? sagittal, transverse, frontal, etc
normal body temp? Regulated by? 37 degrees Celsius, hypothalamus
what is histology the study of the microscopic structure of tissues.
where is the heart The heart lies underneath the sternum,, and a little to the left. The heart is located between the lungs and lies in front of the backbone. It is about the size of a fist above the diaphragm, below second rib
complexity of our body (proteins, cells, organs, etc) atoms,cells,tissues,organs, organ system, the body
lung location either side of the chest in the thoracic cavity
what is the antecubital region the front of the elbow
homeostasis components Receptor Control center Effector
types of serous membranes ? parietal, visceral
protein folding ? primary, secondary, tertiary, quarternary
most common steriod ? cholesterol
DNA sugar deoxyribose
what is sucrose a compound that is the chief component of cane or beet sugar. made of glucose and fructose
atomic number and weight The atomic number of an atom is the number of protons in its nucleus. The atomic weight of an atom is given by the mass number of the atom, equal to the total number of protons and neutrons combined.
electrons are responsible for chemical reactions Valence electrons
enzymes are proteins act as a catalyst for chemical reactions / changes
calcium ions stored in ? sarcoplasmic reticulum
tonicity ? hypo, hyper, iso Refers to the salt balance in the water. hypo = too little salt
RBC in each....? 4-6 million in each mm3
difference between cilia, flagella and microvilli cylia: tiny hairlike projections on cell surfaces flagella: long whiplike extensions of the cell membrane of bacteria and sperm, - used for motility microvilli: tiny projections on epithelial cell surfaces - used to increase surface area for absorption
plasma membrane structure lipids and proteins.
difference between lysosome, peroxisome and ribosome lysosome: an organelle containing digestive enzymes e peroxisome:a small organelle that is present and contains the reducing enzyme catalase and usually some oxidases. ribosome: cytoplasmic organelle where proteins are made / synthesized.
exocrine vs endocrine endocrine glands: ductless and go directly into blood. exocrine glands: glands that have ducts - secretions go to body surface.
what is in the matrix of connective tissue composed of ground substance and fibers. the ground substance consists mainly of water. The principal fiber type is collagen
types of epithelium ? simple, columnar, cuboidal
what is in the dermis? deep layer if the skin. composed of dense irregular connective tissue.
what is arrester pilli small muscles attached to hair follicles. Contraction of these muscles causes the hairs to stand on end goose bumps
bones shapes ? long, short, flat, irregular
study articular cartilage decreases friction at joint surfaces it is a glassy hyaline cartilage.
atlas bone first cervical vertebra
osteon structure a unit of bone. a system of interconnecting canals
bone formation in embryo Ossification. cartilage is replaced by bone
forearm bones radius and ulna
epiphesial plate and age plate is open when growing line is when stop growing
types of muscles ? cardiac, skeletal and smooth
muscle contracting myosin heads catch on binding sites o n the filaments and sliding begins to cause movement
know ventral muscles ? pectoralis major and rectus abdominis
definition of sarcomere the contractile unit of a myofibril; sarcomeres are repeating units, delimited by the Z bands, along the length of the myofibril.
anaerobic glycolysis breaking down glucose without oxygen
shwann cells type of cell found throughout the entire peripheral nervous system Schwann cells insulate (myelinate) individual nerve fibers (axons), which is necessary for sending appropriate electrical signals throughout the nervous system. a glia cell.
motor nerve vs sensory fibers/nerves motor goes from brain to body part (effector). sensory goes from body part to brain (affector)
pituitary gland - function and location is close to the hypothalamus, below the brain. Controls, gonads, thyroid, adrenal cortex, water balance and lactation.
calcium ions makes vesicles to fuse with the cell membrane
wrap of muscle cells ? endomysium
what are tropic hormones? hormones that have other endocrine glands as their target. Most tropic hormones are produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary.
most common blood type in USA O
difference between red and white blood cells WBC contain nuclei, RBS do not
most common WBC neutrophils
universal receiver of blood type AB
what are the 3 granularcytes? neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
antigen of blood types?
buffy coat components The thin layer of concentrated white blood cells and platelets that forms when a tube of blood is spun in a centrifuge.
3 layers of a blood vessel tunica interna, media, externa
SA node location right atrium of the heart
what is lymph plasma fluid that comes from the blood
pyrogens - what do they do? adjust body temp
where are the lymphocytes programmed? thymus and bone
define diapedesis the passage of white blood cells through the intact walls of the capillaries, typically accompanying inflammation.
define chemotaxis movement of neutrophils towards the site of inflammation
function of spleen It acts as a filter for blood as part of the immune system. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there. The spleen also helps fight certain kinds of bacteria that cause pneumonia and meningitis.
surfacant on lung serous membranes - reduces surfaces tension so alveoli do not collapse between breathes. made of lipid molecules
functions of mucus to protect epithelial cells (the lining of the tubes) in the respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital, visual, and auditory systems. provides moisture
mouth parts lips, cheeks, hard palate, uvula, soft palate, tongue
alimentary tract route GI gastrointestinal
metabolism anabolism and catabolism
how many teeth in an adult 32
what does the amylase enzyme digest carbohydrates
sphinctor muscle that allows food to go from stomach to the small intestine pyloric value
anterior roof of mouth hard palate
innermost layer of the alimentary tract mucosa
where does protein digestion begin? stomach
movement that causes food to move peristalsis
2 organs that secrete digestive juices pancreas and liver
Created by: redstreak23