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SLSBio11MicrobiSS

SLS Bio 11 Microbiology SS

QuestionAnswer
Antibody A blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.
Antigen A toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
DNA Carries genetic information.
Host cell An animal or plant on or in which a parasite or commensal organism lives.
Lymphocyte A form of small leukocyte (white blood cell) with a single round nucleus, occurring especially in the lymphatic system.
Lysogenic Cycle Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle is the other).
Lytic Cycle The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction, the other being the lysogenic cycle. The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane.
Membranous envelope The double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. The nuclear envelope has pores that allow the passage of materials into and out of the nucleus.
Mucous membrane A nuclear membrane is the double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells.
Nuclei acid core Any of the group of complex compounds consisting of linear chains of monomeric nucleotides whereby each monomeric unit is composed of phosphoric acid, sugar and nitrogenous base.
Phagocytic white blood cell Any of the cells specialized in engulfing and destroying foreign particles, as well as in removing waste particles and cell debris.
Primary line of defence Organisms must find means of defence against antigens such a viruses. The first line usually having direct contact with the external environment.
Protein capsid The protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus
RNA A polymeric constituent of all living cells and many viruses, consisting of a long, usually single-stranded chain of alternating phosphate and ribose units with the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil bonded to the ribose.
Secondary line of defence Second lines of defence deal with antigens that have bypassed the first lines of defence and still remain a threat to the infected organism.
Tertiary line of defence Tetiary line of defense are your antibodies. The first line of defense is skin, the second line of defense is white blood cells. Tertiary line of defense includes acquired and innate immunity.
Viral specificity It means that a virus is selective in the organisms it infects, the type of cells and the disease it produces.
White blood cell Any of the blood cells that lack hemoglobin, colourless and with nucleus. Its primary role involves the body's immune system, protecting the body against invading microorganisms and foreign particles.
Aerobic respiration The release of energy from glucose or another organic substrate in the presence of Oxygen. Strictly speaking aerobic means in air, but it is the Oxygen in the air which is necessary for aerobic respiration.
Antibiotic Antimicrobial agent made from microorganisms, and can kill and inhibit the growth of microorganisms, especially those that are infectious or disease-causing.
Antiseptic A substance that inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms without necessarily killing them.
Bacteria Microscopic, single-celled organisms. Possess a prokaryotic type of cell structure. They reproduce by fission or by forming spores. They can practically live everywhere.
Binary fission A type of asexual reproduction common among prokaryotes wherein a cell divides giving rise to two cells, each having the potential to grow to the size of the original cell.
Classification The assignment of organisms to groups within a system of categories distinguished by structure, origin, etc.
Conjugation The temporary joining together of two bacterial cells to transfer genetic material via the plasmid (either as solitary or as part of a chromosome) from the donor cell to the recipient cell.
Disinfectant Any chemical agent used chiefly on inanimate objects to destroy or inhibit the growth of harmful organisms.
Ecological role Your position in the branch of biology dealing with the relations and interactions between organisms and their environment, including other organisms.
Fermentation The chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat.
Motility Motility is the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process.
Mutate/Mutation (With reference to a cell, DNA molecule, etc.) undergo or cause to undergo change in a gene or genes.
Photosynthesis The process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water.
Prokaryote A microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles. Prokaryotes include the bacteria and cyanobacteria.
Resistant/resistance The natural or genetic ability of an organism to avoid or repel attack by biotic agents (pathogens, pests, parasites, etc.) or to withstand the effects of abiotic agents (chemicals, pesticides, salt, wind, heavy metals, etc).
Created by: 100000401784342