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Bio II Semester II

Mrs. Deinert's Biology II Second Semester Test Vocab Cards

Pseudocoelom The type of body cavity that forms between the mesoderm and the endoderm in rotifers and roundworms
Spectrometer A tool that measures wavelengths of visible light or other electromagnetic radiation
Diaphragm A dome-shaped muscle that is attached to the lower ribs and that functions as the main muscle in respiration
Proglottid One of the many sections of a tapeworm; contains reproductive organs
Planula The free-swimming, ciliated larva of a cnidarian
Urethra The tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
Esophagus A long, straight tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach
Digestion The breaking down of food into chemical substances that can be used for energy
Bronchus One of the two tubes that connect the lungs with the trachea
Trachea The tube that connects the larynx to the lungs
Minerals A class of nutrients that are chemical elements that are needed for certain body processes
Ovary An organ that produces eggs in the female reproductive system
Vitamin An organic compound that participates in biochemical reactions and that builds various molecules in the body
Calorie The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1 degree Celsius
Spongin A fibrous protein that contains sulfur and makes up the skeleton of some sponges
Rigor Mortis Temporary stiffness of muscles after death
Spinneret An organ that spiders and certain insect larvae use to produce silky threads for webs and cocoons
Nutrient A substance or compound that provides nourishment (or food) or raw materials needed for life processes
Heart Attack The death of heart tissue due to a blockage of their blood supply
Keratin A hard protein that makes up hair and nails
Epithelial Tissue Tissue that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
Sebum Oily secretions of the sebaceous glands
Mandible A type of mouthpart found in some arthropods that is used for eating
Myosin A protein that forms the thick filaments in muscle fibers
Water-Vascular System In echinoderms, a system of canals filled with a watery fluid
Plasma The liquid component of blood
Testis The primary male reproductive organ, which produces sperm cells and testosterone
Fetus A developing human from the end of the eighth week after fertilization until birth
Uterus In female mammals, the hollow, muscular organ in which an embryo embeds itself and develops into a fetus
Vein A vessel that carries blood to the heart
Tendon A tough connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone
Bone Marrow Soft tissues inside bones that either produces blood cells or stores fat
Urine The liquid excreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder, and passed through the urethra to the outside of the body
Pepsin Am enzyme that is found in gastric juices and that helps break down proteins into smaller molecules
Ossicle One of the small, calcium carbonate plates that make up the endoskeleton of an echinoderm
Semen The fluid that contains sperm and various secretions produced by the male reproductive organs
Polyp A form of a cnidarian that has a cylindrical, hollow body and that is usually attached to a rock or another object
Ovulation The release of an ovum from a follicle of the ovary
Penis The male organ that transfers sperm to a female and that carries urine out of the body
Medusa A free-swimming, jellyfish-like, and often umbrella-shaped sexual stage in the life cycle of a cnidarian
Radula A rasping, tonguelike organ that is covered with teeth and that is used for feeding
Vagina The female reproductive organ that connects the outside of the body to the uterus and that receives sperm during reproduction
Compound Eye An eye composed of many light detectors separated by pigment cells
Algor Mortis Cooling of the body after death
Artery A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body's organs
Malphighian Tube An excretory tube that opens into the back part of the intestine of most insects and certain arthropods
Septum A dividing wall, such as the internal wall between an annelid's adjacent segments
Seta One of the external bristles or spines that project from the body of an animal
Stroke A sudden loss of consciousness or paralysis that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is interrupted
Atrium A chamber that receives blood that is returning to the heart
Cardiovascular System A collection of organs that transport blood throughout the body
Siphon A hollow tube of mollusks used for sucking in and expelling sea water
Pedipalp In certain arthropods, one of the second pair of appendages
Nephron The functional unit of the kidney
Livor Mortis Settling of blood to the lowest points in the body after death
Nervous Tissue Tissue of the nervous system, including neurons and their supporting cells
Muscle Tissue The tissue made of cells that can contract and relax to produce movement
Chelicera In arachnids, either of a pair pf appendages used to attack prey
Pulse The rhythmic pressure of the blood against the walls of a vessel, particularly an artery
Peristalsis The series of rhythmic muscular contractions that move food through the digestive tract
Alveolus Any of the tiny air sacs of the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged
Spiracle An external opening in an insect or arthropod, used in respiration
Ureter One of the two narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
Genital Herpes A sexually transmitted infection that is caused by a herpes simplex virus
Urinary Bladder A hollow, muscular organ that stores urine
Excretion The process of eliminating metabolic wastes
Chrysalis The hard-shelled pupa of certain insects, such as butterflies
Menstrual Cycle The female reproductive cycle, characterized by a monthly change of the lining of the uterus and the discharge of blood
Caste A group of insects in a colony that have a specific function
Seminiferous Tube One of the many tubules in the testis where sperm are produced
Embryo An organism in an early stage of development; in humans, a developing individual from first cleavage through the next eight weeks
Blood Pressure The force that blood exerts on the walls of the arteries
Lymphatic System A collection of organs whose primary function is to collect extracellular fluid and return it to the blood
Platelet A fragment of a cell that is needed to form blood clots
Ventricle One of the two large, muscular chambers that pump blood out of the heart
Larynx The area of the throat that contains the vocal chords and produces vocal sounds
Pharynx The passage from the mouth to the larynx and the esophagus
Melanin A pigment that helps determine skin and hair color
Fallopian Tube A tube through which eggs move from the ovary to the uterus
Vas Deferens A duct through which sperm move through the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct at the base of the penis
Skin Gill A transparent structure that projects from the surface of a sea star and that enables respiration
Tube Foot One of the many small, flexible, fluid filled tubes that project from the bidy of an echidnoderm and that are used in locomotion, feeding, gas exchange, and excretion
Pupa The immobile, nonfeeding stage between the larva and the adult of insects that undergo complete metamorphosis
Implantation The process by which a blastocyte embeds itself in the lining of the uterus
Trocophore A free-swimming, ciliated larva of many worms and some mollusks
Ovum A mature egg cell
White Blood Cell A type of cell in the blood that that destroys pathogens and helps the body develop immunities
Red Blood Cell A disc-shaped cell that has no nucleus, that contains hemoglobin, and that transports oxygen in the circulatory system
Flexor A muscle that bends a joint
Nematocyst A stinging organelle that is used to inject a toxin into prey
Cnidocyte A stinging cell of a cnidarian
Metamorphosis A phase in the life cycle of many animals during which a rapid change from the immature organism to the adult takes place
Myofibril A structure found in skeletal muscle cells that is made up of actin and myosin
Subcutaneous Tissue The layer of cells beneath the dermis
Leukemia Cancer of the blood-forming organs
Ligament A type of connective tissue that holds together the bones in a joint
Extensor A muscle that extends a joint
Osteocyte A mature bone cell that maintains the mineral content of bones
Actin A protein that forms the thin filaments in muscle fibers
Dermis The layer of skin below the epidermis
Stem Cell A cell that can develop into many different types of cells
Villus One of the many tiny projections from the cells in the lining of the small intestine
Thorax In arthropods, the mid-body region
Spicule A needle of silica or calcium carbonate in the skeleton of some sponges
Joint A place where two or more bones meet
Capillary A tiny blood vessel that allows an exchange between blood and cells in tissue
Urea The principal nitrogenous product of the metabolism of proteins that forms in the liver from amino acids and from compounds of ammonia and that is found in urine and other body fluids
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease A sexually transmitted infection of the upper female reproductive system, including the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and other structures
Prostate Gland A gland in males that contributes to the seminal fluid
Forensic Science The use of science to investigate legal matters
Epididymis The long, coiled tube that is on the surface of a testis and in which sperm mature
Amoebocyte In sponges and other invertebrates, an amoeba-like cell that moves through the body fluids, removes wastes, and participates on other processes
Trachea In insects, myriapods, and spiders, one of a network of air tubes
Appendage A structure that extends from the main body, such as a limb, tentacle, fin, or wing
Pathology The scientific study of disease
Toxicology The study of toxins and their effects on the body
Ballistics The science that deals with the motion and impact of projectiles
Visceral Mass The central section of a mollusk's body that contains the mollusk's organs
Cerebral Ganglion One of a pair of nerve cell clusters that serve as a primitive brain
Sarcomere The basic unit of contraction in skeletal and cardiac muscle
Menstruation The discharge of blood and discarded tissue from the uterus during the menstrual cycle
Foot An appendage that some invertebrates use to move
Epidermis The outer surface layer of cells
Chromatograph A tool that separates chemicals based on various physical propterties
Choanocyte Any of the flagellate cells that line the cavities of a sponge
Connective Tissue A tissue that connects and supports other tissues
Mantle In biology, a layer of tissue that covers the body of many invertabrates
Cephalothorax In arachnids and some crustaceans, the body part made of the head and the thorax
Muscle Fiber A muscle cell
Autopsy An examination of a body after death, usually to determine the cause of death
Created by: Brooke23