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SLS Bio11 Microbio

SLS Bio11 Microbiology NL

TermDefinition
antibody a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen.
antigen a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier or genetic information
host cell a cell that harbors foreign molecules, viruses, or microorganisms. For example, a cell being host to a virus
lymphocyte a form of small leukocyte (white blood cell) with a single round nucleus, occurring especially in the lymphatic system
lysogenic cycle one of the ways of virus reproduction. Bacteriophage's nucleic acid fuses together with the hosts nucleic acid, so that genetic information of the virus is transmitted through daughter cells
lytic cycle one of the two cycles of viral reproduction, which is usually considered as the main method of viral reproduction because it ends in the lysis of the infected cell releasing the progeny viruses that will in turn spread and infect other cells.
membranous envelope The plasma membrane and cell wall complex of a bacterium
mucous membrane a lubricating membrane lining all body passages and cavities
nucleic acid core genetic material in a middle of the virus
phagocytic white blood cell these cells protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells
primary line of defence physical and chemical barriers that are always ready and prepared to defend the body from infection. These include your skin, tears, mucus, cilia, stomach acid, and urine flow
protein capsid the protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus
RNA ribonucleic acid; a polymeric constituent of all living cells and many viruses, consisting of a long, usually single-stranded chain of alternating phosphate and ribose units with the bases.
secondary line of defence Leucocytes are non-specific and react to the presence of any foreign organism or substance
tertiary line of defence the specific immune response - mechanism that is activated by the presence of pathogens and foreign substances. These are known as antigens.
viral specificity a virus is selective in the organisms it infects, the type of cells and the disease it produces
white blood cell Its primary role involves the body's immune system, protecting the body against invading microorganisms and foreign particles
aerobic respiration the release of energy from glucose or another organic substrate in the presence oxygen
antibiotic a medicine that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms
antiseptic denoting substances that prevent the growth of disease-causing microorganisms
bacteria a member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease
binary fission a kind of asexual reproduction - it is the most common form of reproduction in prokaryotes and occurs in some single-celled eukaryotes
classification the systematic grouping of living things based on characteristics, hierarchical, or phylogenetic relationships
conjugation the process whereby two ciliates come together in a temporary fusion to exchange micro-nuclear material, then separate, each being a fertilized cell
disinfectant an agent that disinfects, applied particularly to agents used on inanimate objects
ecological role the place or function of a given organism within its ecosystem
fermentation an anaerobic cellular process in which organic foods are converted into simpler compounds, and chemical energy is produced
motility the ability to move actively and on instinct, usually consuming energy in the process
mutate/mutation the changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes
photosynthesis the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water
prokaryote a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles
resistant/ resistance the failure of a condition to respond or remit following treatment
Created by: nicky6304