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Mary James Bio Final

This is the final information for LCCC's Mary James Bio class

3 factors of Energy Requirements Size, Activity Level and Location/Environment
Metabolic Rate Sum of all the energy an animal uses in a given time interval
How to measure Metabolic Rate Measure how much O2 is consumed
4 functions of digestive system Ingest, Digest, Absorb, and Eliminate
3 dietary categories of animals Herbivore, Carnivore, and Omnivore
Herbivore mainly eats plants or algae
Carnivore mainly eats other animals
Omnivore eats both plants and other animals
Diet's 3 nutritional needs Chemical energy, taking in building blocks, take in essential nutrients
Chemical energy used to make ATP by sugar, fats, proteins, and carbs
Building blocks used to make macromolecules (have to take in Carbon, Nitrogen, Water, and Phosphorus
Essential Nutrients can't make them so must be premade
4 Essential Nutrients Essential Amino Acids, Essential Lipids/ Fatty Acids, Inorganic Minerals, Organic Vitamins (need small amounts, fat soluble and water soluble
Inorganic Minerals Zinc, Sodium, Pottasium, Calcium, and Iron
Fat Soluble Organic Vitamins Vitamins A, D, E, and K
Water Soluble Organic Vitamins Vitamin C, and Vitamin B-complex
Malnutrition Lacking of one or more essential nutrients
Undernutrition not enough essential nutients to make ATP
Ingest to take in food
Digest Breakdown
Carbohydrates Breakdown to Monosaccharides
Lipid Breakdown to Fatty Acids
Nucleic Acid Breakdown to Nucleotides
Protein Breakdown to Amino Acids
Mechanical Digestion breaking food into smaller pieces Ex. chewing or churning
Chemical Digestion break down enzymatically-hydrolysis
Absorb pass from digestive system to rest of body
Eliminate get rid of excess
Animal Digestion (Simplest to most Complex) Intracellular digestion, Gastrovascular Cavity, Complete Digestive System
Intracellular Digestion each cell takes food in through phagocytosis then fuses with lysosomes, and spit out waste Ex.Sponges/Porifera
Gastrovascular Cavity a sac with a single opening that takes in, secretes enzymes and digest in cavity, distributed through body by diffusion and spit back out
Complete Digestive System mouth and anus/ elementary canal
Types of Feeding Suspension feeders, Substrate feeders, Fluid feeders, Bulk feeders
Suspension Feeders sifting small particles out of water
Substrate Feeders lives on food source, feeds right beneath
Fluid Feeders sucking liquid from a living organism
Bulk Feeders eat larger pieces of food
Elementary Canal one long tubular structure that goes from mouth to anus
Elementary Canal System Mouth-->Pharynx(throat)-->Esophagus-->Stomach-->Small Intestine-->Large Intestine-->Rectum-->Anus
Accessory Structures Dentition(teeth), Tongue, Salivary Glands, Pancreas, Liver/Gallbladder
Salivary Glands Parotid Gland-behind ear, Submandibular Gland-by jaw, Sublingual Gland-under tongue, all secrete saliva
Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice
Liver/Gallbladder secretes Bile
Peristalsis type of muscular movement that propels the food with rhythmic contracting
Sphinctors smooth muscles, muscular valves
Sphinctor Locations In esophagus above stomach, between stomach and small intestine, between small and large intestine
Mouth (Oral Cavity) teeth are indicative of diet
Types of teeth Incisors(for biting, in front), canines(for tearing, pointed, cuspids), premolar(for grinding, bicuspids), molars
Mouth (Mechanical) chewing
Mouth (Chemical) from saliva (H2O, mucus, enzymes-salivory anaylase), only little absorbtion, then swallow
Act of swallowing passage of food from mouth to pharynx
Bolus chunk of solid food going through pharynx
Esophagus connect pharynx to stomach, move food by peristalis
Cardiac Sphinctor located between esophagus and stomach
Stomach food stays in anywhere from 2-6 hours, below diaphragm, very elastic and stretchy
Stomach (Mechanical) not much but Gastric churning- squeezing and mashing food
Stomach (Chemical) have gastric glands, and secrete HCl acid, pH of stomach always acidic, can go down to 1 or 2 with high protein meal
Gastric Glands located inside walls of stomach, secrete gastric juice ( that contains H2O, mucus, and enzyme Pepsin
Pepsin digests protein, type of protease, and is a proteolytic enzyme
Stomach (Absorbtion) Absorbs any small molecules like H2O, vitamins, sugar, or alcohol
Chyme finished product in stomach- chunky, acidic soup
Small Intestine major compartment of digestion, long tubular structure, 18-21 feet in humans, divided into 3 parts
Small Intestine Location top is connected to stomach with loric sphinctor in between, Illeocecal sphinctor to large intestine also
Small Intestine Parts Duodenum-connected to stomach, Jeyunum and Ileum at bottom
Small Intestine (Mechanical) Very slight-squeezing and pushing
Small Intestine (Chemical) most occurs in duodenum
First place to get enzymes from in Duodenum Intestinal juice, duodenal lining, duodenal glands- contain H2O, mucus, and Carbohydrate enzymes- disaccharides and dipeptidases
Second place to get enzymes from in Duodenum Pancreatic juice from Pancreas-secreted into duodenum, alkaline secretion, H2O neutralizing acid
Pancreas contains Pancreatic amylase, (trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-protein splitting enzymes), and Pancreaticlipase
Third Place/ Bile not an enzyme, necessary to properly digests fat
Emulsifier gets fat to mix with water
Jeyunum and Ileum absorb the nutrients by moving slowly through/ Villi and Microvilli give more surface area to absorb
Large Intestine 5-6 feet but large in diameter
Large Intestine parts Cecum-->Colon-->Rectum-->Anal Canal-->Anus
Appendix pouch that sticks off cecum, known for coliform bacteria like E. Coli
Large Intestine Description highly mucusy and lots of bacteria, does 3 things- reabsorbs large amounts of water-80-90%
Large Intestine Description Cont. package the waste and mixes with mucus/bacteria ferments carbohydrates, bacteria make vitamins for you like B-12 or vitamin K
Evolutionary Relationship with Digestive Tract Vertebartes have a common plan, Diet has major influence, dentition is structurally different by diet, carnivores have large expandable stomach and long time between meals, length of digestive tract plays a part-Herbivores=longest, Carnivore=shortest
Circulatory and Reproductive System Both exchange O2(for cell respiration) and CO2(waste product)
Unicellular organisms exchange gases directly with their environment
Multicellular organisms the deeper cells don't make contact with their environment
Cnidarians simplest group of multicellular animals, have gastrovascular cavity (simple sac) that contacts environment inside and out
Platyhelminthes have branched gastrovascular cavity
Diffusion movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration
Circulatory System Components Circulatory Fluid(takes O2 to cells), Vessels(carries fluid to cells and back), Kind of pump(always cardiac muscle, heart)
Open Circulatory System Fluid is called hemolymph-functions as interstitual fluid and circulatory fluid, direct contact with organs, heart pumps hemolymph through vessel but doesn't stay in vessels
Open Circulatory System End usually use body movements to pull hemolymph back in, some larger organisms have accesory pump, ex. all arthropoda, clams, bivalves
Closed Circulatory System work best in mammals and vertebrates, fluid-blood-never leaves vessels, have arteries, veins, and capillaries
Artery all carry blood away from heart (not always oxygenated)
Arterioles arteries smaller in diameter
Veins carry blood to heart (not always unoxygenated)
Venule smaller vein
Capillaries very thin walled, location of all gas exchange
Pump Heart (can have more than 1)
Closed Circulatory System Animals Cephalopods and Annelidia
Blood contains hemoglobin(protein that contains Iron), Iron allows to bind oxygen
Red Blood Cells (RBC or Erythrocyte) most numerous cells in blood, main function to carry O2
White Blood Cells (Leucocytes) fights infections
Platelets (thrombocytes) very small, involved in blood clotting
Plasma liquid part of blood (water mostly, is yellow, and carries nutrients)
Heart vertebrate always have chambers, at least 2, at most 4, atrium and ventricle, 3=2 atrium, 1 ventricle, 4=2 of each
Single Circulation 2 chambers, atrium top, ventricle on bottom, deoxygenated blood leaves heart and comes back
Single Circulation Animals all bony fish, and sharks, rays, and chimeras
Single Circulation Pathway Heart(atrium to ventricle-->Gills/Capillary Bed (oxygenated)-->Body cells/2nd capillary bed (deoxygenated)-->back to heart
Double Circulation 3 or 4 chambered heart, 4 most effective
Double Circulation Animals Amphibians, Reptiles, Mammals
Double Circulation Pathway deoxgenated blood to right atium-->right ventricle-->Respiratory Surface/Capillary Blood-->back to right of heart, etc.
Created by: 14diltzd