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N210B Exam 4 Study

Anatomy and Physiology: Renal System, Fluid Balance, Reproduction

How much blood does the renal system receive each day? Why? 1700 liters, ¼ cardiac output, to excrete toxins, wastes, water, and ions to leave body via urine
This system helps regulate the volume and chemical makeup of blood Renal system
What is gluconeogenesis? When does the body use this? provides Energy for kidneys during prolonged fasting
The renal system produces ____ to regulate BP and ____ to stimulate RBC production. Renin and erythropoietin
What activates vitamin D in the body? renal system
Describe thhe general anatomy of a kidney? convex lateral surface, concave medial surface, renal hilus is a vertical cleft on the medial surface
What is the function of the renal hilus? leads to the renal sinus, place where ureters, renal blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves enter and exit kidneys
The kidneys have 3 external tissue layers which provide support, name them and describe them. Renal capsule (fibrous), Adipose capsule (fatty mass cushions kidneys and helps attach to body wall) Renal fascia (outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors kidney)
What are the 3 distinct regions of the internal anatomy of a kidney from a frontal section? Cortex (light color, granular, superficial region) , Medulla (cone shaped renal pyramids), Renal Pelvis (flattened, funnel shaped tube lateral to hilus within renal sinus)
What is a nephron? What does it do? How many are there? structural/functional units of the kidneys that form urine. About 1 million per kidney
What are the 4 components of a nephron of the kidney? Glomerulus, Proximal Convoluted Tubule, Loop of Henle, Distal Convolute Tubule
In the nephron, what is the structure/function of the glomerulus? group of capillaries assiciated with a renal tubule where substances from blood are filtered into renal tubular filtrate
In the nephron, what is the structure/function of the proximal convoluted tubule? cuboidal cells with a lot of microvilli and mitochondria, this reabsorbs water and solutes from the filtrate and secretes additional substances into filtrate from blood
What is the loop of Henle? part of the nephron of a kidney, hairpin shaped loop of renal tubule
What is the structure/function of the distal convoluted tubule of a nephron? distal to the Loop of Henle, this tubule secretes and reabsorbs from the filtrate
What are collecting ducts in the kidneys? site where many nephrons drain which drains urine to renal pelvis which is the final site of reabsorption of water and salts
What are the 2 types of nephrons? Which is most common? What distinguishes them? cortical nephrons-85%, have very short loops of Henle. Juxtamedullary nephrons locate at cortex/medulla junction, have long loops of Henle that penetrate deeply into medulla
What type of nephron is needed to produce concentrated urine in low water situations? Juxtamedullary nephrons
Each nephron has 2 capillary beds within the glomerulus, name and describe both. Describe blood pressure in each capillary bed Glomerular capillaries- afferent arteriole brings blood to glomerulus and efferent arteriole drains blood, high BP because afferent arterioles have larger diameters and are high resistance blood vessels. This is the site of filtration for blood. Peritubu
What is a vasa recta? long straight efferent arterioles (art of peritubular capillaries) associated with juxtamedullary nephrons
Which nephron capillary bede is for filtration? Which is for absorption? Filtration-Glomerular capillaries. Absorption- peritubular capillaries
What is the juxtaglomerular complex? part of the glomerular blood supply where the distal tubule contacts afferent and efferent arterioles. Consists of Juxtaglomerular cells (secrete renin and act as stretch recceptors for release of renin) and Macula densa (next to JG cells, chemoreceptors
What are the 3 process of urine formation and adjustment of blood composition? Which capillaries are responsible for the processes? Glomerular filtration (Glomerular capillaries), Tubular Reabsorption (Peritubular capillaries), Tubular Secretion
What do you call the filter that lies between the blood and the interior of the glomerular cpsule? What are the 3 layers? Glomerular filtration membrane- Fenestrated endothelium (capillary pores) Visceral membrane (made of podocytes) Basement membrane (-charge glycoproteins)
Given the structure of the glomerular filtration membrane, what is the main physiochemical factor governing filtration? molecular size
Can blood pass through the glomerular filtration membrane? no, it is too large. If blood in urine, something is wrong with the kidneys or something downstream
What are the 3 reasons that the glomerulus has a higher degree of filtration than other capillary beds? membrane is more permeable, has a large SA and Glomerular BP is higher which results in a net filtration pressure
Plasma proteins are not filtered by the glomerulus and help to maintain _____ pressure of the blood. Oncotic
What is the pressure responsible for filtrate formation? Net Filtration Pressure (NFP)
Net Filtration Pressure (NFP)= _______- (_____+________) Hydrostatic pressure-(oncotic pressure of glomerular blood and capsular hydrostatic pressure)
T/F- In order to create filtrate the Hydrostatic Pressure must be greater than (Oncotic pressure and capsular hydrostatic pressure combined) True
What is the glomerular filtration rate? Total filtrate formed per minute by the kidneys (125 mL/min)
If we form 180 L/day of filtrate, why don’t we pee constantly? Reabsorption saves you!
What are 3 factrs governing the filtration rate in the capillary beds of kidneys? Surface area available, membrane permeability, net filtration pressure (NFP)
This is directly proportional to the net filtration pressure Glomerular filtration rate
What typically causes changes in the glomerular filtration rate? changes in glomerular blood pressure
What causes the glomerular filtration rate to be too high? What does this mean for the urine? high BP, needed substances (read glucose) cannot be reabsorbed quick enough and are lost forever!!!
What causes the glomerular filtration rate to be too low? What does this mean for the urine? low BP, causes too much reabsorption to occur so wastes (read toxins/drugs) that are normally disposed are retained in the urine
What are the 3 factors that control the golmerular filtration rate? (filtration rate per minute of kidneys) Renal autoregulation, Neural controls, Hormonal mechanism (renin-angiotensin system)
The 3 facotrs that control the glomerular filtration rate target what variable? Glomerular hydrostatic pressure b/c oncotic pressure/capsular hydrostatic pressure don’t change so GHP affects Net Filtration Pressure which is proportional to GFR
Under normal conditions, what does renal autoregulation do to the glomerular filtration rate? What are the 2 control types necessary to achieve this? maintains constant rate via Myogenic control (responds to pressure changes in renal blood vessels) and Tubuloglomerular feed back (macula densa senses flow rate and NaCL concentration changes in fluid in distal renal tubule at juxtaglomerular complex)
Describe how the neural controls affect filtration rate when the sympathetic nervous system is at rest? When under stress? Rest-renal blood vessels dilated and Autoregulation prevails. Stress- norepinephrine and epinephrine are released and afferent arterioles constrict thus inhibiting filtration
What is responsible for stimulating the renin-angiotensin (hormonal) control mechanism of filtration? Sympathetic nervous system
What triggers the release of renin in the renin-angiotensin control mechanism? What does this system cause? Reduced stretch of JG cells, stimulation of JG cells causes renin to convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin which causes arterial pressure to rise increasing systemic and glomerular hydrostatic pressure which increases filtration
What is reabsorption? What are the 2 pathways through which substances ccan be reabsorbed? most of the glomerular filtrate contents are returned to the blood through Transcellular (through tubular epithelial cells through many membranes- active/passive) or Paracellular pathway (passively between tubular epithelial cells –for ions mostly)
What substances are primarily reabsorbed via the paracellular pathway? Why? ions because the tight junctions between the epithelial cells prohibit larger molecules entrance
What type of molecules are reabsorbed via the transcellular pathway in the proximal convoluted tubule using the Na+ gradient? all organic nutrients (sugar, AA, vitamins)
How is water reabsorbed? passively in parts of nephron and via hormones in others
T/F- Reabsorption can be active or passive True, organic nutrients reabsorbed by secondary active transport of Na+
Substances that are reabsorbed through transport proteins in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule have a transport Maximum (number of carriers and maximum velocity of transport). What happens when the transport proteins get saturated? excess of whatever substance (glucose) in the filtrate is excreted in the urine (sweet pee)
In what part of the renal system is water reabsorbed? all parts basically (proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, DCT and collecting duct)
What is secretion? Why does it matter? third nephron process, reabsorption in reverse, substances move from the peritubular capillary plasma or tubule cells into the filtrate, important for disposing of substances not already in filtrate, eliminating toxins and controlling blood pH
What is osmolality? number of solute particles dissolved in 1L of water
How do we measure the concentration of solutes in body fluids? Milliosmols
The kidneys use the countercurrent multiplier mechanism to keep the solute concentration in body fluids constant at ____ milliosmols. What is the CMM? ~300mOsm, interaction between filtrate flow through loop of Henle (gradient system b/c more permeable to water in descending and less in ascending) and blood flow through vasa recta
What part of the juxtamedullary nephron is the countercurrent multiplier? Which part is impermeable to solutes but not to water? Impermeable to water but not to solutes? Loop of Henle. Descending concentrates filtrate b/c water flows out. Ascending dilutes filtrate as solutes leave the filtrate and enter blood
T/F- all of the Loop of Henle and the Vasa recta are permeable to water and solutes. False, all of Vasa recta is permeable which keeps the osmotic gradient but the Loop of Henle is variable
Describe the most concentrated, normal concentrate, and most dilute urine concentrations. Most 1200 mOsm, normal 300 mOsm, least 100mOsm
What is the default concentration of urine unless ADH acts on the system? 100mOsm
How is urine diluted? filtrate osmolality decreases in the ascending loop of Henle as salt is transported out and the filtrate continues into the renal pelvis
Without Antidiuretic hormone, the collecting ducts for urine are ____ to water which results in ____. How low can urine osmolality be? impermeable to water so no reabsorption occurs which makes for very dilute urine (as low as 50 mOsm)
T/F- You can excrete pure water False, only as low as 50 mOsm
How do you form concentrated urine? antidiuretic hormone increases water reabsorption in the collecting duct up to 99% is absorbed
Without this, you cannot form concentrated urine. high medullary osmotic gradient
How much of the water in filtrate can be reabsorbed in the presence of ADH 99%
What are diuretics? What are 4 specific types? chemicals that increase the urine volume (any substance not reabsorbed like a toxin, any substance that exceeds ability of body to reabsorb like glucose in diabetes, substances that prevent Na+ reabsorption like cafffein, Alcohol which inhibits ADH releas
Describe the composition of urine. What is the pH? What soolutes are in the urine? Mostly water (90-99%), acidic (5), nitrogeneous wastes, urochrome (pigment from heme breakdown causes yellow), sodium, potassium calcium etc
What causes pee to be yellow? a pigment called urochrome that is produced from heme breakdown
What are ureters? What do they do? slender tubes that connect the kidneys and bladder to propel urine into the bladder via smooth muscle stretch in their walls
Describe the urinary bladders properties. Where is it in males? Females? What is the trigone? Why is it important? smooth collapsible sac that stores urine. In males the prostate gland surrounds the neck inferiorly and in females it is anterior to the vagina and uterus. Trigone is triangle area between ureters and urethra of bladder where infections tend to persist
What happens when the bladder is empty? As it fills? collapses when empty, expands to accommodate urine w/o increasing pressure
What is the urethra? What keeps it closed when urine is not being passed? muscular tube that drains urine from the bladder, internal involuntary sphincter and external voluntary sphincter keep closed
What is micturation? the act of emptying bladder via contraction of external urethral sphincter and inhibition of detrustor muscle and internal urethral sphincter
Describe the water content of infants, healthy YAMs and YAFs, the elderly and the general trend of water composition. Why are YAMs and YAFs different? Infants-73%, YAMs-60%, YAFs-50% (more body fat and smaller skeletal muscle), elderly-45%. Water content declines with age
What are the 2 main fluid compartments for water in the body? Describe the subdivisions. Intracellular fluid-2/3 total body water is contained in cells. Extracellular fluid- Plasma (fluid part of blood20%) Interstitial fluid (80%, fluid in spaces between cells)
How is compartmental exchange or the movement of fluids from intracellular to extracellular fluid regulated? When net fluid movement occurs where does water move from and into? Osmotic and hydrostatic pressures regulate net fluid movement from blood into interstitial space where it is taken up by lymphatic vessels and returned to bloodstream
How do you remain properly hydrated? What are obligatory water losses? water in must= water out (obligatory water loss from lungs and skin, undigested food in feces + kidneys must excrete 900-1200 mOsm of solutes to maintain blood homeostasis)
What 3 things stimulate the hypothalamic thirst center? What feedback signals inhibit the thirst center? stimulate-decline in plasma volume by 10%, increase in plasma osmolality by 1-2%. Inhibit- moistening of mucosa of mouth/throat, stomach and intestinal stretch receptors activate
ADH controls urine concentration. High ADH=____, Low ADH=_____. What causes high ADH? How quickly can the kidneys respond to ADH? L=dilute(reduced body fluids), H=concentrated (fever, sweating, vomiting/diarrhea, blood loss, traumatic burns). Kidneys respond quickly since no protein synthesis is needed
What causes dehydration? What is it? Symptoms? What does prolonged dehydration cause? water loss is more than water intake due to hemorrhage, burns, vomiting/diarrhea, profuse sweating, water deprivation, diuretic abuse. Signs-cottonmouth, thirst, dry flush, can lead to mental confusion/fever
What is hypotonic hydration caused by? What is it? Renal insufficiency or excess water ingestion can lead to water intoxication because the extracellular fluid is diluted with water and hyponatremia promotes cellular swelling to take up excess water and can cause brain swelling and death
What is an edema? What causes it? What does chronic edema cause? accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space that leads to tissue swelling, can be ccaused by increased BP/capillary permeability, leaky valves, localized blood vessel block heart failure, hypertension, can result in low BP and poor circulation
This is the most abundant extracellular cation and it is very important for fluid/electrolyte balance Sodium (Na+)
Aldosterone plays an important role in Na+ reabsorption. How? when aldosterone levels are high, Na is actively reabsorbed by the kidneys and water follows Na if ADH is also present
Aldosterone brings about its effects (decreased urine output and increased blood volume) ___ because new transporters that increase Na reabsorption in the collecting ducts must be synthesized. Slowly
T/F- Aldosterone acts more quickly on the body than ADH False because aldosterone must create new Na transporters where as ADH doesn’t require protein synthesis
Why do we need a balanced K+ concentration between the intercellular fluid and extracellular fluid? it affects cell’s resting membrane potential causing hyperkalemia (too much ECF K which decreases membrane potential=hyperresponsiveness) and hypokalemia (too little ECF K which increases membrane potential=nonresponsiveness) which can disrupt electrical
Where is the regulatory site for renal Potassium (K) balance? What does aldosterone do to K? collecting ducts, aldosterone stimulate K secretion in the cortical collecting ducts
What is the primary anion accompanying Na in the extracellular fluid? How much of this anion is typically reabsorbed under normal pH conditions? chloride, 99% reabsorbed
What is the normal pH of Arterial blood? Venous Blood/Interstitial fluid? Intracellular fluid? A=7.4, V/I=7.35 I=7.0
What is alkalosis? What is acidosis? Alkalosis- arterial blood pH rises above 7.45 (basic) Acidosis- arterial blood pH drops below 7.35 (acidic)
Where do most of the H+ ions in the body come from? cellular metabolism (breakdown of phosphorous containing macromoleculse, sulfur contaiining, anaerobic metabolism, fat, transporting CO2 as bicarbonate)
Why does venous blood have a slightly more acidic pH than arterial blood? it has a higher CO2 concentration
The concentration of H+ is regulated sequentially by what 3 systems? 1) Chemical buffer systems (seconds) 2) Pulmonary system (respiratory center in brain stem w/in 1 minute) 3) Renal mechanisms (hours/days to effect pH changes)
What are the 3 major physiological chemical buffer systems? Bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein buffer system combine to minimize pH changes
Which chemical buffer system is the most effective? Why? protein buffer system is the best and most plentiful because proteins can act as both a weak acid or a base
Which chemical buffer system is an effective buffer in the urine and intracellular fluid? phosphate buffer system
The respiratory system regulates the acid-bacse balance. Acidosis causes____ while alkalosis causes _____. Acidosis-deeper and more rapid breathing to expel CO2 and reduce H+ concentration. Alkalosis, slower shallow breathing to retain CO2 and increase H+ concentration
While chemical buffers and the lungs can tie up excess acids/bases or eliminate CO2 (carbonic acid) only ______ can rid the body of metabolic acids and are the ultimate acid-base regulatory organs Kidneys
What are the most important renal mechanisms for regulating acid-base balance? conserving (losing a H+) and excreting bicarbonate ions (gaining H+) in the filtrate
What do the kidneys do to respond to acidosis generate new bicarbonate ions and add to blood and add equal number of H+ions to urine which must bind to buffers in the urine (phosphate buffer system) since lowest pH of urine is 4.5
What causes respiratory acidosis or alkalosis? failure of respiratory system to balance pH
What is the most important indicatory of respiratory inadequacy? What is normal level? Acidosis? Alkalosis? PCO2 levels, Normal-35-45mmHg, Acidosis=above 45 mmHG, Alkalosis=below 35mmHg
What is the most common cause of acid-base imbalance? This occurs when a person has shallow breathing. Respiratory acidosis
What does hyperventilation cause? respiratory alkalosis
What causes metabolic acidosis? What is it? metabolic acid-base imbalance where bicarbonate ion levels are below normal caused by too much alcohol, diarrhea, lactic acid accumulation, ketosis, starvation, kidney failure
What is the second most common cause of acid-base imbalance? metabolic acidosis
What is metabolic alkalosis? What causes it? increased blood pH and bicarbonate levels caused by vomiting, too much antacids, constipation
If you have a stomach bug and vomit for 2 days what happens to the breathing? hypoventillation
Why is it difficult to diagnose an acid-base imbalance? body’s first need is to control pH so it will compensate
Explain how the body compensates for acid-base imbalances which are due to an inadequacy of a physiological buffer system? the other buffer system will compensate ie if the respiratory system is failing to control pH kidneys will work to correct. If the metabolic acid-base imbalances are the problem the respiratory system will correct
In metabolic acidosis when blood pH is below 7.35 and the bicarbonate level is low, how does the body compensate? increase breathing to eliminate CO2 causes PCO2 to drop below normal
We have a lot of chemicals in the body that could act as buffers. Why are they not al physiologically important? concentration not high enough, pH range for buffering is outside of physiologically important range
To correct respiratory acid-base imbalance, the kidneys compensate. For respiratory acidosis the high PCO2 will be accompanied by ___ which indicates the correction high bicarbonate because the PCO2 was the cause and the bicarbonate
What do we call the primary sex organs (gonads) in males and females? What are the sex cells produced by the gonads called? gonads-ovaries and teste- Gametes- ova and sperm
What are the primary sex hormones in males and females? What do they do?
T/F- Until puberty most body systems and characteristics are the same in M/F children True
What produces sperm for males? How does sperm get to the exterior of the body Testes, ducts (epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra) suspended in a fluid called semen
What is the majority of semen volume from? seccretions of seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands
What is the scrotum? Why does it exist? What 2 muscle sets control the intrascrotal temp? skin/muscle/fascia suspended outside the abdominopelvic cavity to keep the testes 3degress cooler than core body temp for efficient sperm production the Dartos wrinkles the scrotal skin and the Cremaster elevates the testes when they get cold to prevent h
How are the testes divided? septa divide the testis into 250 lobules containing seminiferous tubules which are the site of sperm production
How do the sperm leave the testis? efferent ductules lead to epididymis which becomes the vas deferens
What are the 3 main subdivisions of the penis? Root, free shaft, glans penis
What is the internal penis? urethra and 3 cylindrical bodies of erectile tissue (spongy connective tissue and smooth muscle riddled with vascular spaces)
What is an erection? What causes it? during sexual exccitement, parasympathetic PNS reflex causes release of nitric oxide which causes vasodilation which makes penis fill with blood, enlarge and become rigid.
What is the function of the corpus spongiosum of the penis? Corpora cavernosa? CS-surrounds urethra and forms glans of penis, keeps urethra open during ejaculation. CC-keeps erection engaged
What is impotence? inability to attain or sustain a rigid erection
Describe the production of semen ejaculation sends sperm into vas deferens where it mixes with accessory gland secretions-seminal vesicles (alkaline 60%) and prostate gland (prostate-specific antigen to activate sperm 30%) in the ejaculatory duct and is propelled into the prostatic ureth
Why do we need semen? transport medium and nutrients, protects and activattes sperm and helps move. Also alkalinity of semen neutralizes acidic environments to let sperm survive
How much sperm is ejaculated each time? 2-5 ml of semen and 52-100 million sperm/mL
What causes ejaculation? How does it work? sympathetic nerves discharge causing reproductive and accessory ducts to empty, bladder sphincter to contract and propulsion of semen through urethra to external environment
What is needed to achieve complete male sexual function? parasympathetic (erection) and sympathetic (ejaculation) ANS activity
What is spermatogenesis? sequence of events that produces mature sperm in seminiferous tubules of the testes,
How many chromosomes do gametes have (haploid)? How many do human cells have (diploid)? 23 chromosomes and 23 pairs of chromosomes
How are gametes formed? Meiosis in which number of chromosomes is halved
Describe the process of sperm formation from stem cell to mature sperm Spermatogonia->primary spermatocyte->secondary spermatocytes->spermatids->mature spermatozoa
What is spermiogenesis? maturation of spermatids to form sperm (no new cell division occurs), spermatids lose excess cytoplasm, form a tail and develop head (dna) midpiece (mitochondria) tail (flagellum)
What are the 4 important hormones in regulating testicular function? What does each do? Gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulates pituitary gland to release Follicle Stimulating Hormone (tell to release androgen-binding protein to enhance spermatogenesis) and Leuteinizing Hormone(tell to make/release testosterone). Testosterone exerts a neg
Testosterone is synthesized from )_____. It targets all accessory sex organs and a deficiency causes these organs to ______________. What happens with age? cholesterol, atrophy, testosterone production slowly declines but still high enough to support spermatogenesis
Increases in testosterone synthesis is upregulated at puberty and causes changes in appearance of hair, enhanced chest growth, voice deepening, skin thickens/oils, bones grow and become dense, skeletal muscles inccrease in mass. Also the basis of libido in males
What are the primary femal reproductive organs? What do these produce and secrete? ovaries produce Ova and secrete estrogens and progesterone
The ovaries are paired organs on each side of the uterus. Embedded in the cortex are ovarian follicles which consist of _____ and ___. Immature oocyte and follicle cells and granulosa cells
What is the function of the uterine tubes? Structure? recieves the ovulated oocyte and is site of fertilization, expand around the ovary forming the infundibulum which catches the oocyte and then propells the oocyte to the uterus by peristalsis and ciliary action
What do you call the hollow, thick-walled organ located in the pelvis anterior to the rectum and posterosuperior to the bladder? Uterus
What are the 4 regions of the uterus? Body, fundus (entrance for uterine tubes) Isthmus (narrow region between boedy and cervix) Cervix (narrow neck which projects into vagina)
What are the 3 layers that make up the uterine wall? Perimetrium (outermost serous layer) Myometrium (middle smooth muscle layer) Endometrium (mucosal lining with two layers Stratum functionalis which is shed during menstruation and Stratum basalis which forms new functionalis after menstruation).
What is the Vagina? Function? Description? Thin walled tube lying between the bladder and the rectum which extends from the cervix to the exterior of the body, provides passage for birth, menstrual flow and copulation
What is the vaginal fornix? Widened upper end of the vagina surrounding the cervix
Describe the following external genitalia and list the homologous male organ Labia majora (elongated hair covered fatty skin-scrotum) Labia minora (hair-free skin folds within labia majora. Greater vestibular glands (bulbourethral glands, keep vestibule moist) Clitoris (penis, erectile tissue hooded by prepuce, exposed part is gla
The mammary glands contain highly modified ____ glands with 15-25 lobes. What do these lobe contain that produce milk? sweat glands contain glandular alveoli that produce milk to lactiferous ducts to the nipple
What is the areola? What do the suspensory ligaments do? pigmented skin around the nipple, attach breast to underlying muscle
Describe oogenesis production of female sex cells by meiosis
In the fetal period, oogonia (ovarian stem cells) multiply by mitosis, primary oocytes start meiosis buut stall in prophase by puberty. How many primary oocytes in each ovary at puberty? 200,000
Describe the maturation of an ovum Primary oocytes stall in prophase 1 until after puberty when a few activated PO produce haploid cells each month (first degenerates, secondary become Graafian follicle which arrests in metaphase and is ovulated) if fertilized, secondary oocyte completes m
What changes happen to women near puberty to let them reach reproductive maturity? ovaries grow and secretes small amounts of estrogens during childhood that inhibit gonadotropin releasing hormone, hypothalamus becomes less sensitive to estrogen and GnRH is released and FSH and LH are released and act on ovaries and first menarch occurs
What are the 3 parts of the Ovarian Cycle? Follicular phase- (follicle growth days 1-14) Ovulation (separates two phases) Luteal Phase- (corpus luteum activity days 14-28)
Describe the follicular phase primordial follicle->primary follicle>secondary follicle>estrogens produced>full sized follicle bulges from external surface of ovary primary oocyte completes meiosis and gets ready for ovulation while remains of vesicular follicle form corpus luteum whic
Describe the luteal phase after ovulation, follicle collapses, granulosa cells enlarge and form corpus luteum which secretes progesterone/estrogen and degenerates and forms scar if no pregnancy. IF pregnancy happens, corpus luteum produces hormones until placenta (at 10 weeks) ta
Describe the general hormonal events during ovarian cycle 1-14 GnRH stimulates release of FSH/LH 14 LH surge triggers ovulation 26-28 FSH and LH blockade ends cycle restarts
Describe the menstrual effects on the endometrium of the uterus each month in response to hormone levels 1-5=menstrual phase (endometrium is shed) 6-14=Proliferative phase (endometrium rebuilds itself) 15-28=Secretory phase-endometrium prepares for implantation of embryo) No fertilization=endometrial cells die and endometrial lining sloughs off
Why do estrogen levels rise during puberty? promote oogenesis and follicle growth, exert growth on the female reproductive tract, increased fat deposition, widening of pelvis, growth of hair
What happens during menopause? ovulation and menses cease, reproductive organs/breasts atrophy w/o estrogen, hot flashes, thinning of skin and bone density, HDL levels decrease and cardiovascular disease risk increase
What hormone stimulates the libido in females? androgen DHEA
Where does the fertilization usually occur? Where does the zygote travel to and implant? How long does this take? uterine tube and continues to uterus and implants in uterine endometrial lining 4-7 days after fertilization
What forms the placenta? What doe it do? cells from the embryo and endometrial lining form the placenta which is the now main source of estrogen and progesterone necessary to continue the pregnancy
What is the full gestational period? 38 weeks
What is parturition? When does it occur? childbirth occurs when oxytoccin is released from the baby and maternal pituitary in large burst which stimulate prostaglandin release from placent to promote uterine contractions
What are the 3 stages of labor? Dilation (cervix stretches) Expulsion (baby is delivered) Placental (placenta and fetal membranes are expelled from uterus)
What is lactation? What causes it? What is colostrum? milk produced by mammary glands b/c estrogens/progesterone/lactogen stimulate PRH and prolactin. Colostrum is released in the first few days postpartum and it rich in vitamin A, protein, minerals, and IgA. True milk production is stimulated by the infan
Why breast feed? fats and iron better absorbed, proteins digested better, beneficial substances present, helps with immunity, natural laxatives get rid of meconium
What causes breast cancer usually? What are the risk factors? Why is this so scary? epithelial cells of the ducts, early menses or late menopause, no pregnancy or very late pregnancy,family history, hereditary mutation to BRCA 1&2. 70% of women who get BC have no risk factors.
What is the standard surgery for breast canccer? Lumpectomy instead of radical mastectomy
What is Gonorrhea? How is it spread? Symptoms? Treatment? bacterial infection spread by contact with mucosal surfaces. M-painful urination, discharge of pus from penis, F-none, abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, abnormal bleeding. Can result in PID. Treat with penicillin
What is Syphilis? How is it spread? Symptoms? Treatment? bacterial infection transmitted sexually or contracted at Birth. Painless chancre that disappears shortly, rash, fever, pain, latent period and tertiary syphilis (CNS lesions) treat with Penicillin
What is Chlamydia? What is it responsible for? Symptoms? Treatment? 25-50% of pelvic inflammatory disease. Urethritis, discharges, pain, irregular menses, Can cause sterility and arthritis. Treat with tetracycline
What is the most common STD in the US? Chlamydia
What causes genital warts? Genital herpes? What do these viral infections increase risk of?. Warts caused by HPV and increase risk of cancer, Herpes caused by Epstein-Barr virus type 2 can cause cervical cancer. Treat with acyclovir. Gardasil vaccine helps prevent infection.
Created by: destinylagarce