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Ch. 3-5 Ecology

From Notes

How does the earth receive its energy? the sun
nutrients ___ within ecosystems cycle
What is transferred in a system from one organism to another? energy
The transfer of energy from organism to organism makes up the? food chain
what is the bottom of the food chain? producesr
how is energy lost? life processes and loss as heat
What is an energy pyramid: shows therelativea mount of energy availabe at each trophic leve.
How is 90 percent of energy lost? life processes
What are the five nutrients that cycle through ecosystems? hydrogen, osygen, carbon, nitroen and phosphorous
How much of the energy sent by the sun is available to life on earth? 1%
What does the number of trophic levels depend upon? the number of primary producers in the first trophic level
How big are biomes with small numbers of primary producers? short
How much energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next? 10%
What are the levels of organization in order? individual, population, communitry, ecosystem, biome, and biospher
What makes up and ecosystem? more than organisms, geography, weather, climate, and geologic factors influence interactions
What contribute to maintaining the balance of an ecosystem? nutrient cycles
What is the limiting nutrient? whatever nutrient is the most scarce
The limiting nutrient limits growth of what? producers
What is an algal bloom? when excess nitrogen or phosphates cuase an overgrowth of algae
What is a communityr group of populations
what is a niche encompasses all the aspects of an organisms way of life
What are the three community interactions ? competition, predation, and symbiosis
What is the competitive exclusion principle two species with the same nich will compete utnil one species is killed off
What is the driving force behind natural selection?
what is the cyclical trend too many predators
What is carrying capacity max individuals supported in environment
What is symbiosis? living together
What is parasitism +/-
what is mutualism +/+
what is commensalism? +/0
What is succession? change in community
What is primary succession rock
Secondary Succession soil
What is a pioneer species first to inhabit an area
what is population density number individuals per area
what is growth rate increase or decrease in population size
Immigration moving in
emigration moving out
exponential growth population grows drastically
logistic growth resources become less available
What is the density dependent limiting factor? factor that becomes limiting only when the population is dense
What is the density independent liming factor? limiting factor that affects all of the populations no matter what their size
Created by: 3j0mk1