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Higher Biology Unit 3

What are the growth points in plants called Meristems
Where are meristems located Shoot tip, root tip and lateral (cambium)
How are annual rings formed Spring cells big, Summer and Autumn cells smaller and so appear as a line
What species have extensive regenerative abilities Angiosperms
When are the two growth spurts in humans Infant and puberty
Explain the growth curve of a locust Insects possess a hard inelastic outer skin called an exoskeleton which prevents continuous increase in body size. This skin must be periodically shed to allow growth to occur.
What does the regulator gene produce Repressor molecule
What does the repressor molecule normally bind to Operator gene
What does the operator gene control The activity of the Structural gene
What is the inducer molecule and what does it bind to? Inducer = lactose and it binds to the repressor molecule
What advantage does E.coli get from the Lac Operon Resources are not wasted
How do genes control characteristics Through the production of PROTEINS
What must PKU sufferers avoid in their diet Phenylalanine
Why does this condition only affect children after birth When in the womb XS phenylalanine diffuses into the mothers blood.
What is cell differentiation When cells become specialised for certain functions
How is differentiation brought about By different genes being switched on (remember all cells have the same genes)
Name the pituitary hormone that promotes growth Growth Hormone
Name the pituitary hormone that promotes the production of Thyroxine Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
What is the role of Thyroxine Thyroxine promotes metabolism (energy consumption) of cells
What effect does IAA have on cells? Promotes cell division AND cell elongation
What protein do Albinos fail to produce Melanin
How does IAA travel short distances in plants Diffusion
How does IAA travel long distances in plants In Phloem
What condition arises from under production of GH Dwarfism
What condition arises from over production of GH Giantism
What condition arises from over production of GH after growth has finished Acromegaly
Name 4 events that occur at the organ level through the action of IAA Apical dominance, Leaf Abscission, Fruit formation, Phototropism.
Name a commercial use of IAA Weedkiller or producing seedless fruit or rooting powders
Name 3 roles of GA Reversing dwarfism, seed dormancy and bud dormacy
What seed structure produces GA Embryo
What seed structure produces Amylase Aleurone layer
What is Amylase's Substrate and Product Starch to maltose
What part of the plant does GA work on to reverse dwarfism internodes
What do cells need Nitrogen for? Production of amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids
What do cells need Phosphorous for ATP production and Nucleic acid production
What do cells nedd potassium for Transport of materials across membranes
What do plant cells need magnesium for Production of Chlorophyll
What do animal cells need Iron for The production of Haemoglobin and Cytochrome
What do animal cells need Calcium for Strong bones and teeth, clotting of blood and muscle contraction.
What are symptoms of Nitrogen deficiency in plants Reduced leaf growth, Yellow leaves, Red leaf bases and Long Roots
What are symptoms of Phosphorous deficiency in plants Reduced leaf growth, Red leaf bases
What are symptoms of Potassium deficiency in plants Reduced leaf growth
What are symptoms of Magnesium deficiency in plants Reduced leaf growth, Yellow leaves
What effect does Lead have on enzymes Inhibits them (Catachol oxidase)
Why is Vitamin D important in the diet Needed to absorb Calcium
What condition is associated with Vitamin D deficiency Rickets
What drug causes limb malformation Thalidomide
What effect does alcohol have on babies development Reduced growth and mental function
What effect does nicotine have on babies development Reduced growth and mental function
What effect does LACK of light have on stem growth Long and skinny (etiolated)
What gland produces ADH Pituitary gland
What gland produces Thyroxine Thyroid gland
What gland produces Glucagon Pancreas
What gland produces Insulin Pancreas
What gland produces Adrenaline Adrenal gland
Where does ADH have its effect Collecting duct
What effect does ADH have on the collecting duct Increases its permeability to water (more water leaks back into the body from urine)
What effect does drinking water have on ADH production Reduces its production
Define negative feedback A corrective mechanism where the response is in the opposite direction to the change detected.
What is glucose stored as in animals Glycogen
What hormone promotes the storage of glucose in the liver Insulin
What hormone promotes the release of glucose from the liver Glucagon
What effect does adrenalin have on blood sugar Same as Glucagon
Where is temperature monitored in the body Hypothalamus
What effect does cold have on skin blood arterioles Vasoconstrict
When do skin blood arterioles vasodilate When too hot
What is an endotherm An organism that generates its own hreat through metabolism
Density-dependent factors are... Disease, food availability, Parasitism, Predation
What is the carrying capacity? The maximum number og organisms that an area can support
What factors regulate optimum population size Both density-dependent and independent factors
What is the relationshipbetween predaotor and prey population sizes? 1. Predator population is always smaller than prey. 2. Any change in the prey poulation size is slightly later copied by the predator population.
What are the 4 reasons for monitoring wild populations 1. Management of food species and raw materials, 2. Control pest Species, 3. Assessment of pollution using indicator species, 4. Protection & Conservation of endangered species
What effect does succession have on Biodiversity Increases it
What effect does succession have on Biomass Increases it
What effect does Succession have on Food web complexity increases it
Give an example of a pioneer community Lichens
What is the last and biggest organism in the process of succession called The climax community
What causes PKU A gene mutation
Created by: nscobie