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Gene to Protein

terms used in describing transcription and translation

Central Dogma the flow of genetic information within a cell, starting with DNA (master blueprint) code, to transcribing the code into mRNA that is used in translation to build proteins
Transcription Making mRNA by taking DNA nucleic acid language (base pair sequence) and creating a copy in the form of RNA nucleic acid language (base pair sequence)
RNA RiboNucleicAcid; single stranded; Contains ribose sugar, uracil replaces Thymine (U instead of T) A-U, C-G base pairing
Three types of RNA mRNA, tRNA, rRNA siRNA
Template strand the strand of DNA that is used to transcribe mRNA
Coding strand The strand of DNA that is not used to create mRNA BUT has the same code as the newly created mRNA
RNA polymerase 2 Enzyme required for transcription. RNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the growing mRNA based on the code located on the template strand of DNA
promoter region region of the gene that acts as a binding site for RNA polymerase & transcription factors. The promoter region has a base sequence called a TATA box binding site
Enhancer region located far upstream of gene that is being expressed. This region turns the transcription rate to HIGH. increasing the speed at which transcription can occur.
Transcription Factors A protein complex that binds to the promoter region of a gene in order to turn the gene ON of OFF. To activate the gene expression or inhibit the gene expression
Exons the real gene, in other words the parts of the gene sequence that is kept during splicing. The exons have the actual code for the specific protein being made.
introns The junk DNA, located inbetween the exons of a gene. These sections are spliced out in order to create a functioning mature strand of mRNA
mutations if a single base is added or lost, the reading frame of the mRNA is altered which changes the protein being produces. (insertion, deletion)
snRNPs small nuclear RNA proteins that create a spliceosome. The spliceosome cuts out the introns during mRNA processing.
Alterative splicing Spliceosomes can cut out different sections of single gene to produce a number of proteins. This increases the complexity of eukaryotic genes as it allows one gene to code for multiple proteins.
5' cap and poly-A tail used to protect the mRNA as it leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm. prevents enzymes from breaking down the mRNA
Translation converting the RNA nucleic acid language to amino acid language. Translating the code on mRNA to create a protein
Codon mRNA has codons that determine the amino acid sequence. Each codon contains a three base sequence.
AUG the start codon. EVERY protein starts with methionine, which is the AA that is coded for by the codon AUG
Anti-codon the amino acids are carried by tRNA that contains a complimentary base sequence to the codon. Each anti-codon is specific to an amino acid,
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase the enzyme used to attach the amino acid to the tRNA
Ribosome organelle that assists in the production of a protein by holding the mRNA in place while the tRNA's bring in the amino acids. has 1 large subunit and 1 small subunit
A Site first binding site on the ribosome, holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain
P site holds tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain (protein)
E site exit site, the empty tRNA leaves the ribosome from the exit site
Building a polypeptide (three phases) initiation, elongation, termination
initiation brings together mRNA, ribosome subunits, and initiator tRNA
elongation adding amino acids based on codon sequence
Termination end codon, polypeptide is released into the endoplasmic reticulum for processing
signal recognition peptide a protein unit that binds to the polypeptide. This signal peptide/recognition protein complex determines how the ER will process the protein. i.e, where is the protein going to be used.
Created by: cwiest