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Replication Terms

TermDefinition
5 prime carbon The Carbon that is attached to the sugar molecule of RNA and DNA
3 prime carbon The numbered carbon of the sugar molecule that attaches to the phosphate group of joining nucleotides.
Phosphate group PO4, part of the DNA backbone. Bonds with the 3' end of the neighboring nucleotide
Sugar The carbon ring that helps to create the backbone of the DNA and RNA. DNA=deoxyribose, RNA = Ribose
Base Nitrogen bases, are part of the DNA/RNA molecules that hold the two strands together. The rungs of the ladder Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine =DNA Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, Cytosine = RNA
Nucleotide Monomer of DNA, Nucleotides contain the sugar, phosphate and the nitrogen base
Anti-parallel strands our double stranded DNA runs in opposite directions. One strand runs 3' to 5' while the other strand runs in the opposite direction, 5' to 3'
Template strand base pairing allows each strand to serve as a template for a new strand
Semi-conservative at the end of replication, each double stranded double helix strand consists of one parent template and one new strand of DNA
helicase enzyme that unwinds the DNA for replication to start
Single-stranded binding proteins protein units that stabilize the DNA molecule once helicase unwinds it.
replication fork Replication occurs in both directions, as a new strand is formed, the helicase continues to unwind the DNA creating forks
DNA polymerase III enzyme required for replication to occur. builds the new strand of DNA using complementary base pairs.
nucleosides nucleotides come with their own energy allowing nucleotides to bond to the 3' end of the growing strand. GTP=guanine triphosphate, CTP cytosine triphosphate, ATP=adenine triphosphate, TTP= tyrosine triphosphate
leading strand replication is continuous on the leading strand
lagging strand form okazaki fragments form because nucleotides can ONLY add to the 3' end of the growing strand. Because they are anti-parallel one strand is read continuously while the lagging strand must be read in fragments.
ligase Enzyme that fixes the okazaki fragments by attaching (welding) the fragments together
RNA primer serves as a starter sequence for RNA Polymerase III to build on
Primase enzyme that starts building RNA primer so that replication can start. (DNA MUST have a 3' end to attach nucleotides to. RNA primer provides a 3' end)
DNA Polymerase I removes the RNA primer and replaces it with DNA nucleotides
Created by: cwiest