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BIO EXAM 3

QuestionAnswer
properties of neurons cell body containing the nucleus, and processors or fibers (dendrites and axons)
bipolar neurons neurons with two processors, an axon and a dendrite. Found only in sense organs
Goiter disease enlargement of thyroid gland.
glial cells ; types and function CNS Astrocytes Glial cells are supporting cells 1. astrocytes: star shaped, anchor neurons to blood capillaries, controls exchanges between capillaries and neurons, protecting them most abundant glial cells
What carries signal away from the cell body Axons
white blood cells number (leukocytes) 4,800 to 10,800
Schwann cells Part of PNS: makes myelin sheaths around nerve fibers
central nervous system refers to Brain and spinal cord
what are effectors Nerves that carry impulses FROM the CNS to the effector organs, the muscles and glands.
blood matrix non-living fluid matrix called plasma
most common blood type in US O
HORMONES ARE PRODUCED BY WHAT SYSTEM endocrine system
what is a neurotransmitter chemical that is released when nerve Impulses reach the axon terminals
Define the connection of a ganglian a group of cell bodies
functions of oxytocin stimulates contractions of the uterine muscle during labor, and causes milk ejection in nursing women. is released by the hypothalamus.
what ion influx inside nerve cells at an electric impulse action potential is made influx by these ions into cells
sequence and layers that wrap nervous tissue Schwann cells form the myelin sheath around the axon. the myelin sheath is surround by the neurilemma.
difference between motor and sensory sensory: nerves that convey impulses TO the CNS motor: nerves that convey impulses FRM the CNS
difference between somatic and visceral somatic: peripheral - around the body visceral: pertaining to the internal part of the structure / organs
putatary gland is closely associated to hypothalamus
brain stem what is it and its componants controls autonomic functions including breathing and blood pressure. includes: mid-brain, pons, medulla oblongata
blood brain barrier is perimable to O2, H2O, ACHOAL, Na, K, Cl, glucose
brain meninges 3 connective tissue membranes covering and protecting the CNS structures. Outermost = dura mater. Middle = arachnoid mater. inner = pia mater
difference between gigantism and acromegaly gigantism: hyper secretion by the pituitary gland during childhood results in very tall but in proportion. acromegaly: hyper section after long-bone growth has completed = large facial bones, large hands and feet.
synaptic cleft gap between an axon terminal and the next neuron
basic function of pituitary gland controls the gonads, thyroid, adrenal cortex, water balance and lactation
basic function of adrenal gland produces corticosteroids to control the water and ion balance in the body. Also produces glucocorticoids (cortisone and cortisol) which promote normal cell metabolism and help the body resist long term stressors.
basic function of thyroid gland makes thyroid hormone (controls metabolic rate), and calcitonin (decreases blood calcium levels by causing calcium to be deposited in the bones).
what cells in the pancreas secrets insulin beta cells
hematocrit the amount of hemoglobin in the blood / the percentage of red blood cells (erythrocytes) to total blood volume.
difference between red and white blood cells; structure, function, numbers Red: erythrocytes 4 - 6 million. function: to transport oxygen and CO2. No nucleus. Act like a bag for the hemoglobin. White: 4,800 - 10,800. Role - defense abd immunity. Basophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils. contain nuclei.
what is the hormone responsible for T-lymphocytes thymosin hormone, produced in the thymus.
what cells are granularcytes, granular includes neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Lobed nuclei.
components of buffy coat WBC (leukocytes) and platelets
reflex arc, steps afferent pathways interneuron/ interrogation neurons/ association efferent effector
neuromuscular junction region where the motor neuron comes into close contact with the skeletal muscle cell
parts of the synapse, molecules involved synapse is the junction / gap between the axon of one neuron and the next neuron. the impulses cause neurotransmitters to be released into the gap, carrying the signal to the next neuron
functions of cerebellum processes information from the the cerebral motor cortex and provides instructions for smooth muscle movements. Also responsible for balance and posture.
growth hormones secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. stimulates growth (bones and muscles) and metabolism.
blood typing O, A, AB, B. O is the universal donor. AB is the universal recipient.
antigen within different blood groups an antigen is see as foreign by the body, and stimulates the release of antibodies
antibody and antigen within different blood groups O has no antigens
mode of actions on steroids glucocorticoids: increase blood glucose. mineralocorticoids: promote reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium in kidneys, = increased blood pressure. androgens male characteristics. estrogens- female progesterone - grows uterine lining
anterior pituitary hormones growth hormone(GH), prolactin (PRL), follicule stimulating(FSH), lutenizing(LH), thyroid stimulating(TSH), adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)
posterior pituitary hormones oxytocin, antidiuretic(ADH)
route of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the central nervous system ( CNS) brain ventricles to subarachnoid space, some goes to the central canal of the spinal cord, flows through the subarachnoid space, then gets absorbed into the dural venous sinuses via the arachnoid villi
acetyl choline (ACh) chemical transmitter substance released by certain nerve ending.
number of cranial and spinal nerves 12 pairs of cranial nerves. 31 pairs of spinal nerves: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal.
pH of blood 7.35 to 7.45
common and rarest WBC common- neutrophils. rarest- basophils
prolactin hormone, under pituitary stimulates milk production. from anterior lobe of pituitary gland.
Glial cells (supports neurons) in CNS 2. Microglia: phagocytes that monitor the neurons health and dispose of cellular debris. 3.
Glial cells in CNS 3. Ependymal cells help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid to protect the CNS.
Glial cells in CNS 4. Oligodendrocytes produce fatty insulating coverings called myelin sheaths
Created by: redstreak23