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SLS NervousSystem LM

SLS Nervous System Liam McKay

acetylcholine (ACh) Acetylcholine is a type of neurotransmitter. It is a chemical that is used by neurons to communicate with other neurons and with parts of the body. It is also used by the part of the nervous system that is responsible for resting and digesting.
acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into acetate and choline. Expression of AChE can serve as a marker of skeletal muscle differentiation.
action potential the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.
adrenal medulla the medulla of the adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine
adrenalin a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, especially in conditions of stress, increasing rates of blood circulation, breathing, and carbohydrate metabolism and preparing muscles for exertion.
“all-or-none”response Phenomenom in which a muscle fiber contracts completely when exposed to a threshold stimulus, or not at all.
autonomic nervous system the part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed, such as breathing, the heartbeat, and digestive processes.
axomembrane collection of dendrites and axons
axon the long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells.
axoplasm he cytoplasm of a nerve axon.
cell body The soma, or perikaryon, or cyton, is the bulbous end of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus.
central nervous system the complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord.
cerebellum the part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity.
cerebrum the principal and most anterior part of the brain in vertebrates, located in the front area of the skull and consisting of two hemispheres, left and right, separated by a fissure.
corpus callosum a broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain.
dendrite a short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body.
depolarization a loss of polarity or polarization
effector an organ or cell that acts in response to a stimulus.
excitatory neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse.
hypothalamus a region of the forebrain below the thalamus that coordinates both the autonomic nervous system and the activity of the pituitary, controlling body temperature, thirst, hunger, and other homeostatic systems, and involved in sleep and emotional activity
impulse a sudden strong and unreflective urge or desire to act.
inhibitory neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse.
interneuron a neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc.
meninges the three membranes (the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater) that line the skull and vertebral canal and enclose the brain and spinal cord.
motor neuron a nerve cell forming part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland.
mylein sheath medullary sheath: a layer of myelin encasing (and insulating) the axons of medullated nerve fibers
neuron a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell.
neurotransmitters a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure.
node of ranvier a gap in the myelin sheath of a nerve, between adjacent Schwann cells.
norepinephrine a hormone that is released by the adrenal medulla and by the sympathetic nerves and functions as a neurotransmitter. It is also used as a drug to raise blood pressure.
parasympathetic division The parasympathetic nervous system is one of three main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other two being the sympathetic and enteric systems.
peripheral nervous system the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord.
Pituitary gland the major endocrine gland. A pea-sized body attached to the base of the brain, the pituitary is important in controlling growth and development and the functioning of the other endocrine glands.
postsynaptic membrane The part of the cell membrane of a neuron or muscle fiber with which an axon terminal forms a synapse.
potassium gate ion channel selective for potassium ions. There are diverse types with different functions, for example: delayed rectifier channels, m channels, A channels, inward rectifier channels, ca dependent K channels.
presynaptic membrane that part of the plasma membrane of an axon terminal that faces the plasma membrane of the neuron or muscle fiber with which the axon terminal establishes a synaptic junction;
receptor an organ or cell able to respond to light, heat, or other external stimulus and transmit a signal to a sensory nerve.
reflex arc the nerve pathway involved in a reflex action including at its simplest a sensory nerve and a motor nerve with a synapse between.
refractory period a period immediately following stimulation during which a nerve or muscle is unresponsive to further stimulation.
repolarization the change in membrane potential that returns the membrane potential to a negative value after the depolarization phase of an action potential has just previously changed the membrane potential to a positive value
resting potential the electrical potential of a neuron or other excitable cell relative to its surroundings when not stimulated or involved in passage of an impulse.
saltatory transmission A method of neuronal transmission in vertebrate nerves, where only specialised nodes of Ranvier participate in excitation. This reduces the capacitance of the neuron, allowing much faster transmission.
Schwann cell any cell that covers the nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system and forms the myelin sheath
sensory neuron a neuron conducting impulses inwards to the brain or spinal cord
sodium gate Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions through a cell's plasma membrane
sodium-potassium pump Na+ /K+ -ATPase is an antiporter enzyme located in the plasma membrane of all animal cells. The Na+ /K+ -ATPase enzyme pumps sodium out of cells, while pumping potassium into cells.
somatic nervous system The somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles.
sympathetic division The sympathetic nervous system is one of three major parts of the autonomic nervous system: the others being the enteric and parasympathetic systems.
synapse a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.
synaptic cleft Chemical synapses are specialized junctions through which neurons signal to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
synaptic ending The synapse consists of the synaptic terminal, or presynaptic ending, of a sending neuron, a postsynaptic ending of the receiving cell that contains receptor sites
synaptic vesicle synaptic vesicles store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse. The release is regulated by a voltage-dependent calcium channel.
thalamus either of two masses of gray matter lying between the cerebral hemispheres on either side of the third ventricle, relaying sensory information and acting as a center for pain perception.
threshold value A relative fluorescent unit (RFU) value that must be exceeded to make an allele call. This value will vary among laboratories.
Created by: LMKay