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A&P of Vocal Mech. 1

from Zemlin text

Ventral towards the front
Anterior towards the back
Posterior towards the back
Cranial (rostral) towards the head
Caudal towards the tail
Medial towards the midline
Lateral away from the midline
Superficial towards the surface of the body
Deep away from the surface of the body
Proximal closer to center of body; closer to attachment of limb to torso
Distal away from attachment to body
Frontal plane that divides body into a front and back part
Sagittal plane that divides body into right and left parts
Transverse plane that divides body into top and bottom parts
Cell basic organizational unit of all living organisms
cytology scientific study of cells
Cytoplasm part of the cell that's enclosed within the plasma membrane
Protoplasm living contents of a cell that are surrounded by a plasma membrane
DNA molecules comprising genes
Organelle specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function and is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid membrane
Cell Membrane made up of lipid molecules comprised in a dipole or bilayer and various types of protein molecules
Microfilaments membrane bound channels within cells
Microvilli slender hair-like extensions of the outer membrane wall of cells
Cell Nucleus control center of cell, which contains the cell's chromosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum eukaryotic organelle that forms an interconnected network of tubules, vessicles, and cistern within cells
Rough ER important for synthesis of proteins
Smooth ER important for synthesis of non-proteins, such as fluids
Mitochondria membrane-bound organelles within cytoplasm with a variety of functions: respiration, making chemical energy that is derived from breakdown of organic compounds
Lysosomes membrane-bound organelles within cytoplasm; responsible for removing material from the cytoplasm; intracellular scavengers
Golgi Complex consists of one or more zones of smooth ER; important as secretory structures
Epithelium tissue composed of cells that line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body
Connective Tissue binds structures together, supports the body
Muscle Tissue contractive tissue of the body; derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells
Neural Tissue main component of nervous system: brain, spinal cord, nerves; regulates and controls body functions
Vascular Tissue liquid tissue such as blood and lymph
Proper Epithelium epithelial cells that form the outer layer of the body and the internal membranes that are continuos with the outside of the body (mucous membranes)
Simple Epithelium single layers resting on a basement membrane of connective tissue
Squamous Epithelium simple epithelium where the cells form a flat pavement-like surface
Columnar Epithelium cylindrical cells; form a palisade-like layer
Stratified Epithelium several layers of cells where the deep layers are columnar, and surface is approached, cells become more flattened and polygonal
Pseudostratified Epithelium single layer of cells where the cell nuclei are at irregular levels
Pseudostratified Ciliated Epithelium pseudostratified cells with cilia on the exposed surface (respiratory tract)
Epidermis skin; ET that forms the outer surface of the body
Transitional Epithelium tissue consisting of multiple layers of epithelial cells which can contract and expand; found in urinary tract, particularly urinary bladder
Glands specialized epithelial cells for the secretion of substances
Ectoderm lines external surfaces (skin) and alimentary tract
Endoderm lines respiratory tract; epithelium of respiratory tract
Goblet Cells in mucous membranes; secrete mucin (exocrine cells)
Keratin protein which waterproofs membrane (skin)
Non-Keratized no waterproofing properties (mucous membranes)
Mesoderm Tissue lines internal cavities (heart, vessels, lungs)
System two or more organ combine to form a functional unit; skeletal, reproductive, endocrine, integumentary, articular, muscular, digestive, vascular, nervous, respiratory, urinary
Organ two or more tissues combined to form a structure with functional unity; ex: larynx
Lymphocytes cells in lymphatic system; recognize foreign materials and eliminate them from the body
White Blood Cells involved in body defense mechanisms
Red Blood Cells contains hemoglobin for binding with oxygen
Plasma clear, slightly yellowish fluid containing inorganic ions, immunoglobulins, proteins (clotting) and other materials such as steroids
Neurons cells in the nervous system
Muscle Insertion attachment of muscle that moves
Muscle Origin attachment of muscle that doesn't move
Synergist Muscle muscle that works with others to facilitate each other's movement
Antagonist Muscle muscle that works against another muscle
Agonist Muscle muscle that works with another muscle
Cardiac Muscle muscle forming the heart
Smooth Muscle involuntary, slow contracting muscle
Striated Muscle voluntary muscle important for body movement and posture
Triponin protein molecule attached to actin in muscle cells
Sarcolemma outer membrane wall of muscle cells
Transverse Tubules deep invagination of the sarcolemma which is the plasma membrane, only found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells; allow depolarization of the membrane to quickly penetrate to the interior of the cell
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum membrane bound channels with muscle cells that store calcium
Actin muscle protein involved in contraction
Myofilaments basic molecular structure of muscle
Myofibril groups of muscle proteins surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum
Muscle Fiber bundles of muscle cells surrounded by fascia
Amphiarthrodial Joints allow a little movement
Diarthrodial Joints allow ample movement in one or more directions
Synarthrodial Joints suture, immovable joints
Joints connections between two bones or cartilages
Bone Marrow flexible tissue found in the hollow interior of bones; In adults, in large bones produces new bloods cells
Cancelous Bone spongy; interior network of fibers and channels on the inside of bones
Haversian Canals network of fibers and channels within bones
Osteoblasts cells that are responsible for bone formation
Periosteum membrane covering outer surface of bones
Bone densest of connective tissue; inorganic salts (calcium) provides hardness and brittleness
Fibrocartilage stiff yet flexible; made of collagen and elastin; provides a strong cushion such as between vertebrae bodies
Elastic Cartilage more elastic fibers make this yellowish; more flexible; found in ears and nose
Hyaline Cartilage bluish-white; covers the ends of bones and provides smooth articulation for joints
Chondroblasts cells responsible for cartilage formation
Cartilage stiff yet flexible connective tissue; joins between bones, rib cage, ear, nose, bronchial tubes, intervertebral discs
Special Dense Connective Tissue composed of cells (chondroblasts) located in spaces called lacunae surrounding the lacunae are ground matrix and fibers-- cartilage and bone
Reticular Connective Tissue fibers forma soft skeleton (stroma) to support the lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, red bone marrow, spleen)
Fascia dense connective tissue surrounding organs or muscles
Ligament dense connective tissue connecting bone to bone or cartilage to cartilage
Aponeurosis flat sheet of connective tissue forming attachment to muscles
Tendon dense connective tissue connecting muscles to bone or cartilage
Collagen one of long fibrous structural proteins whose functions are a major component of the extracellular matrix that supports most tissues and gives cells structure from the outside
Elastin protein giving elastic properties to tissue
Dense Connective Tissue characterized by densely packed fibers of collagen or elastin
Loose Connective Tissue very loose/irregular; forms the bed for other tissues such as the skin
Eukaryotic cells with nucleus
Exocrine producing secretion that's released outside its source
Created by: lmslms



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