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7th Science

Fish, Reptiles, and Amphibians - Chapter 9

Cold-blooded Regulate their temperature by external means
Fish Aquatic vertebrates possessing gills, fins, and scales
Ichthyologists Scientists who study fish
Fish have glands in their skin that secrete a protective layer of slimy ______ to reduce _____. mucus,drag
Lobe-finned fish Have webbed rays attached to the body by a lobe; Lungfish and coelacanths
Fins Distinguish fish from other vertebrae
Name the two groups bony fish are divided into. Ray-finned fish, lobe-finned fish
Caudal fin Sticks out from the fish's tail and is used as a propeller
What type of fins help stabilize the fish while swimming dorsal, anal
Dorsal fin(s) The prominent fin on the top of the fish
Anal fin The fin behind the pelvic fin
Pelvic fin Located below the pectoral fins on the fish's underside; act as rudders, paddles, and brakes
Pectoral fins Located on the sides of the fish beteen the gills
What are Rays (spines) made of? Thin rods of bone or cartilage
Ray-finned fish Include most bony fish, posses fins made of webs of skin supported by rays or spines
Scales Bony overlapping plates that protrude from the fish's skin
What are the four basic scale shapes? Placoid, Ganoid, cycloid, ctenoid
Myomeres The W shaped bands in a fish's body; The Part of a fish that is eaten; powerful Skeletal muscles
Gills Fish uses these to extract oxygen from the water
What sucks the oxygen out of the water in the gills? gill filaments
As the fish takes in water through its mount, the water is filtered by the gill filaments before exiting the ____ _____. gill slits
Operculum hard, movable plate that protects and cover all the dilicate respiratory anatomy
Fish have a ____-_________ heart with one ______ and one _________. two-chambered, atrium, ventricle
In most fish, the mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach make a _______ ______ so that the prey can be swallowed ______. straight line, whole
Fry Young fish
Livebearers Fish that give birth to live young
Swim bladder A large gas-filled organ located high in the fish's body that allows the fish to stay suspended in any debth of water
What are the two ways fish produce light? A light producing organ called the photophore or from bacteria that is bioluminescent [capable of glowing]
Electric organs Some fish use this to generate electricity
Spawning To lay large quantities of eggs in the water.
Anus Where solid wastes are removed from the fish
Gas glands Introduce a heavy gas (carbon dioxide) into the bladder to pressurize it so it does not collapse; this allows the fish to float at its new depth
Roe Eggs
Milt A fluid that contains the sperm that a male fish releases when he swims over the roe
Sharks Chondrichthians with a body design similar to bony fish
What are the differences between sharks and fish? Sharks lack a swim bladder, have more complex reproductive systems, and have gill slits without operculums
Denticles, what group of scales are they? Placoid scales that sharks are covered with; they do not overlap like most fish scales do
Spiracles Paired holes for inhalation that a shark has behind their eyes
Describe a batoid. Cartilaginous fish with flattened bodies
What does the Batoid order include? (4) True rays, electric rays, skates, and sawfish
What are the "big three" attacking sharks? The great white, the bull, and the tiger shark.
Pups Shark young
Mermaid's purse A rigid capsule that has long tendrils coming off the ends that carries eggs
Neutrally buoyant To neither rise or sink but remain at the current depth; Sharks can almost accomplish this
Great White Shark The biggest carnivorous fish
Eye shine Caused when an animal has reflective plates lining its eyes, which allows the animal to more fully use any available light
True rays Have broad bodies and generally have long, whip-like tails, most are marine bottom-dwellers
Stingray A true ray that is non aggressive, has a venomous barb on its tail, is responsible for more injuries to people than all other fish combined
Skates Non-venomous batoids with long noses
Electric ray [torpedo] It kills its prey with electric charges generated by special organs located behind each eye
Rostrum A long saw-fish nose that is long and cartilaginous with sharp tooth-like projections
Sawfish A cartilaginous fish that looks like a shark but behaves like a ray
Chimeras Bottom dwellers that are found in temperate ocean water, that have a bulky head and large eyes
What are the three families within the Chimeras? Short-nosed, long nosed, and plow-nosed chimeras
Short-nosed Chimaras [ratfish] Found in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, and have rounded or cone-shaped noses
Plow-nosed chimeras [elephant fish] Have trunk like noses
Long-nosed chimeras [spookfish] Not much is known about them because the inhabit the deepest water have pointed or paddle shaped noses
Class Cycostomata Hagfish and Lampreys
Hagfish and lampreys Cartilaginous fish with and eel-like appearance; lack jaws, bones, scales, and fins but have pore-like gill openings
Slime glands Hagfish possess these; excrete slime making the hagfish hard to hold, able to suffocate prey, ward off predators, and line burrow walls
Reptiles (name the five groups) Coldblooded vertebrates that include lizards, crocodilians, snakes, turtles, and tuataras
Herpetologists The scientists who study reptiles and amphibians
Keratinized To harden with keratin
Amnion A special protective layer that protects a reptile's eggs
Lizards The most numerous reptiles; diverse and found in every climate, are mostly found in hot climates
Gecko small, flat-bodied lizards that are nocturnal insectivores and highly vocal
The Komodo dragon The largest lizard
Chromatophores Color containing cells beneath the skin of some species of lizards, which allows them to change color
Regenerate To grow back
Gila monsters One of the two venomous lizards [the other one is the Mexican beaded lizard]
Spectacle Geckos have this immovable, transparent eye covering
Iguanids A herbivorous lizard group found throughout North and South America composed of iguanas and other similar species
Dewlaps Ornamental crests, frills, and throat fans
Anoles Common lizards usually green or brown
Marine iguana The only lizard to have a truly aquatic life style
Chameleons Arboreal lizards found primarily in Africa and Madagascar
Skinks Lizards with elongated bodies covered in smalll, overlapping scales
Snakes Legless reptiles with a unique body design
What are the four way snakes move? Lateral undulation, concertina movement, sidewinding movement, and rectinlinear movement
Lateral undulation One way snakes move; accomplished by the snake following an S shape and exerting force against surface irrugualraites
Rectilinear movement The snake alternately stretches and shortens its body segments, allowing portions of its belly to rest on the ground while other areas are lifted up and stretched forward; slow but effective for stalking prey
Concertina movement The snakes acts like an accordion it coils back and forth
Sidewinding movement When a snake lifts its body off the ground and throws it sideways; this is done on sandy surfaces
Molt To shed skin
Jacobson's organ A cavity that allows the snake to ssmell
To consume the large meals that snakes catch, they were given a set of ________-_________ jaws. Double-hinged
Clutches Snake litters
Venom A poisonus liquid containg enxymes and chemicals that destroy portions of the body
Fangs Long grooved or hollow teeth designed to inject venom in their victim, snakes that have poison have this type of teeth
Hemotoxic venom Works more slowly that Neurotoxin venom; Makes the victims's red blood cells in the circulatroy system burst
Neurotoxic venom Attacks the nervous system, causing blindness and paralyzing the diaghragm so that the victim suffocates
Antivenin Medicine designed to counteract snake venom
Constrictors Slow-moving snaks that coil around their prey and squeeze [constrict] until they die
Name two groups of constrictor snakes. The boa and the python
Pythons are one of the few snakes that _______ their eggs. brood
Boas are generally found in the ____ _______. New World
Colubrids The largest group of snakes
Blind snakes The world's smallest snakes; burrow through the ground by pushing through the dirt with their hardened skull
What are the two common families of poisonous snakes? Vipers and elapids
Kraits The Asian elapids that have huge venom glands that can be 1/3 the length of their body
Sea snakes A group of marine elapids found in Asia and the Pacific Ocean
Coral snake What North and South American snakes belonging to the elapids family belongs to
The viper family is divided into two groups: the _____ ____ ______ and the ____ ______. Old World vipers, pit vipers
Pit organ A special depression on the front of their head between their eyes and nostrils; detect temperature changes and allow the snake to locate warm bodies in the dark; Pit Vipers (Like the rattlesnake) have this
Turtles The only reptiles with shells`
Plastron covers the abdomen of a turtle's shell
Carapace Covers the back of the turtle
Scutes The "squares" on a turtles shell
Marine turtles Have paddle-like limbs and rarely come on land except to lay eggs
Snapping turtles Common fresh-water turtles found throughout the Americas that have a nasty bite
Tortoise Turtles that only live on land and have elephant-like feet
Crocodilians Include crocodiles, alligators, caimans, and gavials; the largest living reptiles
Crocodiles Swift and aggressive predators that are the largest (living) reptiles
Alligators and caimans are ___ __________ and ____ ________ to humans and animals than crocodiles are. less aggressive, less dangerous
Gavials are found only in _____ and ______. India and Burma
Tuataras Nocturnal, lizard-like animals that are classified by themselves
Parietal eye A third eye tuataras have located on the top of their skull
Sir Richard Owen Coined dinosaurs their name; Dinosaurs means "terrible lizard"
Therapods Carnivorous dinosaurs that walked on two legs
Sauropods Large herbivorous animals that have elephantine leggs and leaf shaped teeth
Pterosaurs Dinosaurs that have a similar body structure to bats
Pliosaurs and plesiosaurs Giant dinosaurs that were of the sea with paddle shaped feet and legs
Amphibians Cold-blooded, vertebrates that are mostly terrestrial but live near water and spend an important part of their life cycle in it
Tetrapods Four legged animals
Metamporphosis The changing of an immature hatchling which does not resemble its parents into and adult which looks like others of that species
Where are Salamanders found; describe a salamander Found worldwide in moisture-rich temperate and tropical regions; elongated bodies that possess a distinct head and neck and usually a long tail
What three categories are Salamanders divided into based on their reproduction? Describe where the groups live and breed. 1. Wholly terrestrial- Live on land and lay their clutches in batches of 20-30 eggs on land 2. Wholly aquatic- live in the water and lay clutches of up to 5000 eggs in the water 3. Newts - amphibious salamanders that live on land but return to the water
Newts Amphibious-Live on land but return to the water for breeding batches of 100-400 eggs
Efts The Juvenile form of a newt; they look similar to adults and live on land
Sirens A unique group of Salamanders that live in shallow water as active predators
Estivation A type of dormancy that sirens will do during a dry season
Frogs and toads Amphibians with strong bodies connected to the head without a neck
Amurans The group frogs and toads belong to
Tadpoles The larvea of frogs and toads
A miniature frog adult Froglet or toadlet
Caecilians Amphibians that are long bodied and limbless; looks like worms and snakes
Why are caecilians not classified with worms or snakes? They are not classified with worms because they have vertebrae and are not classified with snakes because they lack scales
Annuli Folds or rings in the caecilians's body
Dermatophagy Process in which the mothers grows a fatty layer of skin every three days for the young to consume (only caecilians do this)
What three sections is the fish divided into The head, the tail, and the trunk
What are the thin rods that are the "bones" of the fin Rays (or spines)
Ray-Finned Fish Includes most bony fish, possess fins made of web supported by spines
Lobe a single bone surrounded by muscle that supports the webbing of a fin
What is system of nerve endings that extend over the fish's head and sides, allowing the fish to sense vibration and pressure changes The Lateral Line
What are the two divisions of cartilaginous fish? chondrichthyes (Those with Jaws) and cyclostomata (Jawless)
What is the primary difference between skates and true rays? Skates lay eggs True rays don't
What are hagfish best known for Their scavenging ability, a hagfish will enter a dying fish and eat out its insides, it is so effective a fish on a hook will be ruined if a hagfish sees it
Lampreys Parasites that have a sucking organ and will attach themselves to the sides of fish, found in both fresh and salt water
What are the four characteristics of reptiles Their skeleton continues to grow their entire lifetime, their ribs extend the length of the body, they have scales which cover their entire body, they also are cold-blooded
How many species of lizards care for their eggs Only five species of lizards care for their eggs
What is the name of the smallest lizard a Jaragua Sphaero
What are the two types of snake venom? Neorotoxic and hemotoxic
Placoid scales that are teeth shaped
Ganoid scales that are diamond shaped
Cycloid scales that are round and smooth
Ctenoid scales that are round with sharp barbs
Created by: nelsonclan