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Phonetics Final

omission of a phoneme during speech production Elision
The overlapping of the articulators during speech production. Time efficient process. coarticulation
the process whereby phonemes take on the phonetic character of neighboring sounds assimilation
variant production of a phoneme allophone
two types of assimilation 1. regresssive 2. progressive
occurs when the identity of a phoneme is modified due to a phoneme following it. Also known as right-to-left or anticipatory assimilation. regressive assimilation
occurs when a phoneme's identity changes as the result of a phoneme preceding it in time. also called left-to-right or perseverative assimilation. progressive assimilation
the addition of a phoneme to the production of a word epenthesis
Epenthesis can be the result of: 1. coarticulation 2. variation in production 3. speech disorders
the transposition of a sound in a word. "slip of the tongue" metathesis
the full form of a vowel becomes more like the mid-central "shwa" when spoken in connected speech. Also occurs when vowel changes sound when word gets added on to. vowel reduction
modifications that span entire syllables, words, phrases and sentences - stress, timing, intonation. Affect an entire utterance, not just one phoneme suprasegmentals
stressed syllables have 3 components: 1. louder 2. longer 3. higher pitch
the word that get stressed usually: 1. level of importance of the word in the sentence. 2. the speaker's intent of the message being conveyed
words containing salient information in a sentence content words
content words: nouns,verbs, adjectives, adverbs
less important words in a sentence function words
the use of sentence stress to indicate a speaker's particular intent contrastive stress
two types of information provided during a conversation: 1. given info 2. new info
type of information in a sentence that receives the stress new information
modification of voice pitch intonation
change in fundamental frequency that span the length of a meaningful utterance intonational phrase
syllable that receives the greatest pitch change in any particular intonational phrase tonic syllable or nuclear syllable
accompany complete statements and commands and are indicative of the finality of an utterance falling intonational phrases
usually indicates some uncertainty on the speaker's part. typical of questions and incomplete thoughts rising intonational phrases
term used to describe the durational aspect of connected speech. 5 - 5.5 syllables per second. also determined by pauses located between syllables, words, phrases and sentences tempo
vowels preceding voiceless consonants are shorter than the vowels preceding voiced consonants
term used to indicate the way in which syllables and words are linked together in connected speech juncture
term given to a pause that connects two intonational phrases external juncture
includes all disorders involving speech sound production phonological disorder
evaluation of articulation errors misarticulations
error involving the replacement of one phoneme by another substitution
error involving the deletion of a phoneme omission
error involving the production of an allophone of the intended phoneme distortion
error involving the insertion of an extra phoneme in a word addition
when there are several types of errors, it may be more efficient to evaluate the client's speech in terms of error patterns
nasals and stops acquired first, glides, fricatives, liquids, affricates
idea that young children are born with innate processes necessary for the production of speech natural phonology
young children are not capable of producing adult speech patterns, they often simplify the adult form phonological processes
phonological process categories: 1. syllable structure 2. substitution 3. assimilatory
phonological process: affect the production of syllables so that they are simplified syllable structure process
phonological process that involves the omission of an unstressed syllable preceding or following a stressed syllable - can be common in adult production weak syllable deletion
phonological process that reduces a syllable to an open syllable final consonant deletion
phonological process involving the repetition of a syllable of a word reduplication
phonological process results in the deletion of a consonant from a consonant cluster cluster reduction
process involving the replacement of one class of phonemes for another substitution process
involves the substitution of a stop for a fricative or affricate stopping
involves the substitution of an alveolar phoneme for a velar or palatal articulation fronting
occurs when a child substitutes a fricative for an affricate deaffrication
involves a substitution of the glides for the liquids gliding
involves the substitution of a vowel for postvocalic /l/ or /r/ vocalization
involve an alteration in phoneme production due to phonetic environment. may be progressive or regressive assimilatory process
occurs when a nonlabial phoneme is produced with a labial place of articulation due to the presence of a labial phoneme elsewhere labial assimilation
occurs when a nonalveolar phoneme is produced with an alveolar place of articulation due to the presence of an alveolar phoneme elsewhere in the word alveolar assimilation
occurs when a nonvelar phoneme is produced with a velar place of articulation due to the presence of a velar phoneme elsewhere in the word velar assimilation
involves voicing of a normally unvoiced consonant prevocalic voicing
involves a phoneme "assimilating to the silence" devoicing
processes that children with disordered phonology display that aren't found in the speech of typically developing children idiosyncratic processes
idiosyncratic processes: 1. glottal replacement 2. backing 3. initial consonant deletion 4. stops replacing a glide 5. fricatives replacing a stop
the substitution of a glottal stop for another consonant glottal replacement
the substitution of a velar stop consonant for consonants usually produced more anterior in the oral cavity. backing
the omission of a single consonant at the beginning of a word initial consonant deletion
the substitution of a stop for a glide stops replacing glides
the substitution of a fricative for a stop fricatives replacing stops
child's sound system is evaluated independently with no reference to a given standard. shows what a child is doing/ CAN do independent analysis
focus is to help nonstandard speakers of English reduce their accents to be more intelligible accent reduction
Created by: rccraun



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