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Evolution Unit

Natural Selection The process that results in living things with beneficial traits producing more offspring than others. Changes the traits of living things over time.
Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) Argued that species change over time. His idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics is incorrect. Traits an organism develops during its own lifetime cannot be passed on to an offspring.
Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Argued that gradual geological processes have gradually shaped Earth's surface. He believes Earth is older than most people believe.
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) Argued that human populations grow faster than the resources they depend on. When populations become too large, famine and disease break out.
Artificial Selection The breeding of plants or animals desirable traits. The opposite is called natural selection.
Alfred Russel Wallace English naturalist that traveled places to study the environment and had the same theory as Darwin.
Charles Darwin Creator of evolution.
Paleontologists Scientists who find and study fossils.
Comparative Anatomy The study of similarities and differences in the structures of different species.
Homologous Chromosomes Structures that are similar in related organisms because they were inherited from a common ancestor.
Analogous Structures that are similar in unrelated organisms because they evolved to do the same job, not because they were inherited from a common ancestor.
Comparative Embryology The study of the similarities and differences in the embryos of different species. Similarities is the evidence of common ancestry.
Vestigial Structure Evolution has reduced their size because the structures no longer used.
Biogeography The study of how and why plants and animals live where they do.
Microevolution Occurs over a relatively short period of time within a population or species.
Genotype Genetic makeup of an individual.
Gene Pool A population that consists of many genotypes.
Allele Frequency The amount of times the allele occurs in a gene pool relative to the other alleles for that gene.
Evolution Occurring Occurs in a population when allele frequencies change over time.
The Hardy- Weinberg Theory Shows that allele frequencies do not change in a population if certain conditions are met.
Forces of Evolution Mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection.
Mutation Creates a new genetic variation in a gene pool.
Gene Flow Occurs when individuals move into or out of a population.
Genetic Drift A random change in allele frequencies that occurs in a small population.
Bottleneck Effect Occurs when a population suddenly gets much smaller.
Founder Effect Occurs when a few individual start, or found, a new population.
"Fit for the environment" Organisms that are better adapted to the environment.
Polygenic Traits Stabilizing selection, directional selection, distributive selection.
Stabilizing selection Occurs when phenotypes at both extremes of the phenotypic distribution are selected against.
Directional Selection Occurs when one of the two extreme phenotype is selected for.
Distributive Selection Occurs when phenotypes in the middle of the range are selected against.
Macroevolution Occurs over geologic time above the level of the species.
Speciation Process by which a new species evolves.
Allopatric Speciation Species that are unable to interbreed.
Sympatric Speciation New species arises without geographic separation
Coevolution When species in symbiotic relationships evolve together.
Gradualism Occurs gradually due to stable geologic and climate conditions.
Punctuated Equilibrium Occurs rapidly because of geologic and climate conditions changing
Created by: Kenziee