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Vertebrate Zoology

Lepidosaurs (Sphenodon, Lizards, and Snakes)

Location of Sphenodon Islands off New Zealand;
Feeding of Sphenodon Nocturnal so physiologically capable of low body temperature; Feed on sleeping birds and active arthropods;Grooved upper teeth for sheering with lower teeth
Determinate Growth of Squamata Do not surpass a certain size so no excess food needs, no outgrowing habitats, and no need for large prey; Stops from being too big to move; Jaws for direct food that doesn't get too big (insects)
Arboreal Squamata Laterally flattened; Opposable digits; Prehensile tails; Projectile tongue with modified hyoid bone unit
Large Squamata Herbivory; Carnivorous with many prey species to feed on
Limbless Squamata Amphisbaenids with loose connective tissue between trunk and skin for concertina motion
Foraging of Squamata Sit and Wait for large, visible prey that give lots of nutrient in one gulp, use camo, and are territorial; Widely foraging hunt for small prey with colonies that give lots of prey at once, run prolonged with racing strips, are not terretorial
Autotomy in Squamata Intravertabre is the ancestral state that splits the bone; Intervertebrae splits the bone between two bones; Costs of locomotion and balance, energy to regrow, more susceptible to prey, immune response
Social Interactions in Squamata Anolis lizards have gular flaps that can be extended, head bobbing, and laterally flattened bodies to display aggressively towards males or for courtship of females
Origin of Snakes Fossorial lizard like ancestor that lost eyesight and regained it later with success of limbless anatomy
Cranial Anatomy of Snakes Ancestorally had two holes and two bars, lizards lost one bar for flexible upper jaw, and snakes lost two bars so one bone connection to jaw. Allows for large and wide mouth when capturing prey
Prey Capture of Snakes Constrictors bite to hold and then coil around, short vertebrae and vertebrae muscles; Venom can destroy tissue, increase permeability, destroy energy, block neuromusclar, long vertebrae
Venom and Fang Types of Snakes Viperids, front fangs that rotate, solenoglyphous long fangs that are hollow; Elapids are front fanged but immobile and short, proteroglyphous hollow fangs permanently erect; Colubridae rear fangs, opisthoglyphous, enlarged at rear solid or grooved
Locomotion in Snakes Lateral undulation is fasted in long bodied snakes; Concertina anchors against substrate and then stretches; Sidewinding; Rectilinear powered by abdominal muscle contractions
Feeding in Snakes Long times between feeding due to shutting down unnecessary organs like liver, kidneys, and stomach until next feeding
Reproduction of Snakes Ovipary is ancestral but vivipary evolved independently over 100 times. Ovipary allows for thermoregulation and no nest restrictions but slower movement
Created by: LionsandGiants