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SLSBio12 Nervous SM

SLS Bio 12 Nervous System SM

TermDefinition
Acetylcholine (ACh) activates muscles, and is a major neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, also has a role in attention and arousal
acetylcholinesterase (AChE) stop excitation of a nerve after transmission of an impulse.
action potential the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.
adrenal medulla makes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
adrenalin a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, especially in conditions of stress, increasing rates of blood circulation, breathing, and carbohydrate metabolism and preparing muscles for exertion.
all or none response the strength by which a nerve or muscle fiber responds to a stimulus is independent of the strength of the stimulus.
autonomic nervous system the part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed, such as breathing, the heartbeat, and digestive processes.
axomembrane is responsible for maintaining the axon's membrane potential. contains many ion channels to depolarize/hyperpolarize the axon. membrane of the axon
axon extends from the cell body. conducts impulses away from the cell body
axoplasm cytoplasm of axon. has a different composition of organelles and chemicals than cell body and dendrite cytoplasm
calcium ion Calcium ions are important mediators of a great variety of cellular activities, including the passing of information between neurons and down a neuron.
cell body the nucleus-containing central part of a neuron exclusive of its axons and dendrites that is the major structural element of the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord
central nervous system controls the brain & spinal cord. has interneurons
cerebellum the part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity.
cerebrum responsible for the integration of complex sensory and neural functions and the initiation and coordination of voluntary activity in the body
contractile protein mediate sliding of the contraction of a cell's cytoskeleton, and of cardiac and skeletal muscle.
corpus callosum a broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain.
dendrite a short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body.
depolarization axoplasm gains a positive charge compared to outside
effector an organ or cell that acts in response to a stimulus.
excitatory neurotransmitter the stimulate the brain to be depolarized
hypothalamus coordinates both the autonomic nervous system and the activity of the pituitary, controlling body temperature, thirst, hunger, and other homeostatic systems, involved in sleep cycle and emotional response
impulse the way nerves transmit info.
inhibitory neurotransmitter calm the brain and help create balance, cause a repolarization
interneuron conducts messages between sensory and motor neurons
medulla oblongata the continuation of the spinal cord within the skull, forming the lowest part of the brainstem and containing control centers for the heart and lungs.
meninges the three membranes (the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater) that line the skull and vertebral canal and enclose the brain and spinal cord.
motor neuron conducts nerve impulses from the cns to a muscle fiber or gland
myelin sheath insulates neuron. helps to speed iup impulse because of nodes of ranvier
myelinated nerve fibre a nerve fiber encased in a sheath of myelin
neuroendocrine control centre able to maintain homeostasis or internal balance in the body with the help of the autonomic nervous system. receives info from the blood
neuron a cell with an excitable membrane for the transmission of electrical signals
neurotransmitters bind with receptor sites on postsynaptic membrane during impulse travel across a synapse
node of Ranvier periodic gap in the insulating sheath (myelin) on the axon of certain neurons that serves to facilitate the rapid conduction of nerve impulses.
norepinephrine excitory
parasympathetic division inhibits or opposes the physiological effects of the sympathetic nervous system, as in tending to stimulate digestive secretions, slow the heart, constrict the pupils, and dilate blood vessels.
peripheral nervous system the part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord.
pituitary gland the major endocrine gland. A pea-sized body attached to the base of the brain, the pituitary is important in controlling growth and development and the functioning of the other endocrine glands.
polarity Polarity in neurons is necessary for long range communication. Polarization is utilized in passing of electronic signals through neurons, which help to connect the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
postsynaptic membrane The part of the cell membrane of a neuron or muscle fiber with which an axon terminal forms a synapse.
potassium gate __ open, in response k + floods through to outside
presynaptic membrane The part of the cell membrane of an axon terminal that faces the cell membrane of the neuron or muscle fiber with which the axon terminal establishes a synapse.
receptor a sensory nerve ending that changes specific stimuli into nerve impulses
reflex arc involuntary response to stimuli
refractory period activity of Na/K pumps return ions to initial positions gates are closed, unable to conduct impulse
repolarization restoring of initial polarity
resting potential when the neuron is not conducting an impulse has high Na+ concentration outside, high K+ concentration inside. Negative inside
saltatory transmission impulse jumps from node to node
Schwann cell a cell that forms spiral layers around a myelinated nerve fiber between two nodes of Ranvier and forms the myelin sheath consisting of the inner spiral layers
sensory neuron conducts neve impulses from a sense organ to the CNS: receptor to spine
sodium gate __ in membrane open, Na+ rushes in
sodium-potassium pump maintain Na+ and K+ distribution/polarity
somatic nervous system the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements
sympathetic division inhibits or opposes the physiological effects of the parasympathetic nervous system, as in tending to reduce digestive secretions, speed up the heart, and contract blood vessels
synapse a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.
synaptic cleft gap between neurons
synaptic ending often club-shaped endings by which axons make synaptic contacts with other nerve cells or with effector cells
synaptic vesicle a small secretory vesicle that contains a neurotransmitter, is found inside an axon near the presynaptic membrane, and releases its contents into the synaptic cleft after fusing with the membrane.
thalamus relaying sensory information and acting as a center for pain perception, sorts data
threshold value The maximum concentration of a chemical allowable for repeated exposure without producing adverse health effects.
Created by: Smorrison