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types of selection directional, stabilizing, disrupting, sexual
directional selection phenotype moves towards one direction
stabilizing selection the intermediate is favored, extremes die out
disrupting selection the extremes are favored, intermediate dies out
sexual selection sexual dimorphism
causes of population variation mutations, sexual reproduction, diploidy, outbreeding, balanced polymorphism, geographic variation, heterozygote advantage, evolutionary neutral traits, frequency dependent selection
mutations raw material for variation
sexual reproduction new combos of alleles in offspring
diploidy 2 copies of each chromosome (recessive alleles that are disadvantageous are hidden)
outbreeding same species mates with individuals who are not closely related
balanced polymorphism pressure of multiple phenotypes in a population
geographic variation animals in different climates exhibit different phenotypes
heterozygote advantage hybrid is selected for
evolutionary neutral traits traits that appear to have no selective advantage stick around
frequency dependent selection minority is at an advantage
speciation formation of new species
species group of organisms which can produce fertile offspring
types of speciation allopatric, sympatric, adaptive radiation
allopatric caused by geographic isolation
sympatric temporal or behavioral isolation
types of sympatric speciation balanced polymorphism, polyploidy, hybridization
polyploidy more than 2 complete sets of chromosomes
hybridization 2 closely related species mate
adaptive radiation environment changes an ancestral species into many species
patterns of evolution divergent, convergent, parallel, coevolution
divergent evolution two species from a common ancestor drift apart over time
convergent evolution 2 unrelated species share similar traits due to a similar enviroment
parallel evolution 2 related species which follow the same evolutionary pattern after diverging from an ancestor
coevolution once species evolves in response to another
macroevolution large changes in groups of species over extended periods
types of macroevolution phyletic gradualism, punctuated equilibrium
phyletic gradualism slow changes over time
punctuated equalibrium rapid evolution due to mutation
causes of evolution natural selection, mutations, non-random mating, gene flow, genetic drift
natural selection shaped by the environment
mutations can be as small as a point mutation
non-random mating sexual selection
gene flow movement of alleles into & out of the population
genetic drift random increases or decreases in alleles due to SMALL POPULATION
Reproductive Isolation prezygotic & postzygotic mechanisms
prezygotic mechanisms temporal isolation, behavioral isolation, habitat isolation, mechanical isolation, genetic isolation,
postzygotic mechanisms zygote malfuction, offspring sterility, hybrid breakdown
genetic equalibrium when allelic frequency is stable generation to generation
Created by: evan787