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Oddball orders

not closely related but share similar specializations

QuestionAnswer
specializations for myrmecophagy convergent evolution, long snout, long/strong/sticky tongues, reduced/absent dentition, strong/heavily clawed forepaws, gizzard-like area in stomach, k-selected
Order Cingulata armadillos, extinct ground sloth (formerly Xenartha), (9,21), North (since 1880s) and south america, low MR and body temp, extra articular surfaces in lumbar and thoracic vertebrae (support carapace made from dermal bone), lack incisors/canine
Order Cingulata, Family: Dasypodidae armadillos, susceptible to leprosy (only animal besides humans), carapace made of scutes (bands), delayed implantation up to 2 years, often give birth to identical quadruplets (important to biomedical research provides controls), startled->jump 2-3 ft up
Order Pilosa, Family: Bradypodidae 3-toe sloth (1, 4), central and south america, 8-9 cervical vertebrae, mostly folivorous (not myrmecophagous), different in cranial structure 2 vs 3 toe
Order Pilosa, Family: Megalorychidae 2-toe sloth, 5 or 6 or 8 cervical vertebrae, folivorous, central and south america, closer than any mammal to being green (coarse/grooved hair allow algae growth)
Order Pilosa, Family: Cyclopedidae (1,1), silky anteater, monotypic family, central and south america
Order Pilosa, Family: Myrmecophagidae anteaters, (2,3), central and south america, edentate, highly specialized for ants, termites, bees etc. long tapered skull, up to 600mm tongue anchored to sternum, giant anteater terrestrial (other terrestrial/arboreal)
Order Pholidota, Family: Manidae pangolins (1,8), scales but face and inner limbs, africa, asia, close ears & nostrils keep out ants, anal gland foul liquids, tongue longer head and body & anchored to pelvis, defensive roll in ball (sharp scales stick out), edentate, sticky saliva
Order Tublidentata, Family: Oryteropodidae (1,1) aardvark, monotypic family, elongate/flexible snout, small eyes, good smell (tentacles nasal septum), good burrough, sparse hair, unusual dentition (incisor/canine fetal stage, adult 20-22 cheek teeth composed of pulp tubules surrounded by dentine)
Created by: jebeard