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Primates

Order Primates

QuestionAnswer
Order Primates general characteristics 60g mouse lemur->180kg gorilla, 362 spp., large rounded braincase, short rostrum, molars for grinding (bunodont/brachyodont), usually omnivorous but more often eat fruit and vegetables, orbits face forward, unfused/highly mobile radius/ulna & tibia/fibula
Order Primates general characteristics plantigrade, most pentadactyl, many opposable hallux & pollex, nails instead of claws->better grip/object manipulation, ecological generalist, most (semi)arboreal
Order Primates general reproduction 1 pair mammary glands, many breed year round (some restricted: lemurs), scrotal testes, most baculum (not cebids, tarsiers, humans), usually 1 offspring at a time
Suborder Strepserhini no postorbital plate, relatively long rostrum, wet naked nostrils, yes toothcomb, yes toilet claw, yes bicarnuate uterus, no fused uterus
Suborder Haplorhini yes postorbital plate, short rostrum, dry/furry nostrils, no toothcomb, no toilet claw, no bicarnuate uterus, yes fused uterus
Strepserhini, Family: Daubentoniidae (1,1) aye aye, Madagascar, nocturnal, insectivorous, long middle finger for probing for insects
Strepserhini, Family: Larisidae larises, angwantibos, pottos, Central Africa, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka
Strepserhini, Family: Galagidae (3,19), bushbabies, Africa, leap from branch to branch
Strepserhini, Family: Lemuridae lemurs, Madagascar, diurnal, crepuscular, (semi)arboreal, omnivorous, frugivorous, insectivorous, carnivorous
Strepserhini, Family: Lipelemuridae (1,8), spartive lemurs, nocturnal, arboreal, Madagascar
Stepserhini, Family: Cheirogaleidae (5,21), mouse lemurs, dwarf lemurs, Madagascar, frugivorous, insectivorous
Strepserhini, Family: Indriidae (3,11), Indrids, sifakas, Madagascar, herbivorous
Haplorhini categories Catarrhini (downward facing nostrils) old world, Platyrrhini (side facing nostrils) south america, Tarsii (nostrils completely ringed) tarsiers, above superfamily and below suborder
Haplorhini, Family: Tarsiidae (1,7), tarsiers, nocturnal, Indonesia, Phillipines, rat-sized, rotate heads almost 180 degrees, legs and feet have elongated tarsal bones to allow leaping and jumping
Haplorhini, Family: Cebidae (6,56), marmosets, tarmarins, capuchins, squirrel monkeys, callimico, central and south america
Haplorhini, Family: Aotidae (1,8), night monkeys, central and south america, nocturnal
Haplorhini, Family: Atelidae Howler, spider, wooly monkeys, central and south america, big tail (prehensile, longer than bodies, only primates with prehensile tails)
Haplorhini, Family: Pithecidae salic, uakaris, bearded sakis, central and south america
Haplorhini, Family: Cercopithecidae (21,132), mandrills, colobins, proboscis, Africa, Asia, Indonesia, males and many females have large canines, bright skin (rump/face/scrotum)
Haplorhini, Family: Hylobatidae (4,14), gibbons, siamangs, Southeast asia, china, indonesia, arms longer than legs, move by brachiation (swing between branches)
Haplorhini, Family: Hominidae (4, 7), gorillas, chimps, orangutans, humans, equatorial Africa, Sumatra, Borneo, largest primates (40-180kg), lack tail, long development period, pollex, hallux opposable, sexual dimorphism, complex social behavior, includes bonobo
Homo sapien erect bipedalism, large vaulted cranium & large brain, light skeleton, less size dimorphism, origin around 200,000 years or more ago
Economic importance/conservation HIV from species ump monkey->human (SIV->HIV) blood-blood during butchering or bite, seed dispersal, crop eaters, all endangered but humans: habitat destruction (tropical deforestation), zoo attractions, medical research
Created by: jebeard