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Bats

Bat diversity

QuestionAnswer
Subclass Theria
Infraclass Eutheria
Order Chiroptera
Suborders Megachiroptera, Microchiroptera
Megachiroptera general characteristics 1 family, 186spp, old world tropics, eat fruit nectar and pollen, no pollinators, no echolocation, claw on 2nd digit, large
Microchiroptera general characteristics 17 families, 930spp, worldwide, complex pinnae, some hibernate, echolocate, insectivorous, absent postorbital process, nose/facial ornamentation, no claw 2nd digit, tail uropatagium, small, palate to last upper molars
General bat characteristics small hind limbs, knees directed laterally, locking mechanism of hind limb to conserve energy, Calcar (thin cartilaginous spur from ankle support patagium), long slender light bones, internal ear tragus (fleshy projections from pinnae), flattened ribs
More general bat characteristics Most vertebrae fused, well-developed pectoral girdle anchored to clavicle, keeled sternum, skull inflated in auditory region, elongate forearm, carpals, phalanges, (anti-)tragus not in megachiroptera
Subclass Theria
Infraclass Eutheria
Order Chiroptera
Suborders Megachiroptera, Microchiroptera
Megachiroptera general characteristics 1 family, 186spp, old world tropics, eat fruit nectar and pollen, no pollinators, no echolocation, claw on 2nd digit, large
Microchiroptera general characteristics 17 families, 930spp, worldwide, complex pinnae, some hibernate, echolocate, insectivorous, absent postorbital process, nose/facial ornamentation, no claw 2nd digit, tail uropatagium, small, palate to last upper molars
General bat characteristics small hind limbs, knees directed laterally, locking mechanism of hind limb to conserve energy, Calcar (thin cartilaginous spur from ankle support patagium), long slender light bones, internal ear tragus (fleshy projections from pinnae), flattened ribs
More general bat characteristics Most vertebrae fused, well-developed pectoral girdle anchored to clavicle, keeled sternum, skull inflated in auditory region, elongate forearm, carpals, phalanges, (anti-)tragus not in megachiroptera
Bats in cold some migrate, some hibernate (cluster in favorable microclimates), some migrate and hibernate, some daily torpor (decrease body temp close to ambient)
k-selected limited reproductive potential (1 or 2/ year), long lived (little brown 24-33years, big ~19years), red bats average litter 3.2-5
Echolocation microchiroptera, can detect objects 6/10mm, high frequency sound pulses, process: signal->echo return->prey detection increase pulse rate (feeding buzz refines image to home in), disarticulate ear bones to avoid deafening
Economic effects negative Diseases: rabies (rabid bats usually act paralyzed not aggressive), vampire bats spread things to livestock, crop predation fruit bats
Economic effects positive predators of nocturnal insects, seed dispersal, pollination, medical research (drug testing, navigation for blind)
Bat management/conservation many threatened/endangered, colony extermination, bat-proof houses, cave problems from splunkers/sealing, insecticides, general degradation of habitat
White-nose syndrome 2006 NY cave spread southwest & north, cold-loving fungus found ears and nose, 25 states 5 canadian provinces, population decline 80% certain areas, long recovery k-selected, hibernation wake more & fly day, urinate & defecate more->burn energy reserves
Suborder Megachiroptera Family: Pterpodidae, old world fruit bat, 186spp, tropics/ subtropics, largest bats, eat fruit crops, fox faces, can have up to 2m long wingspans
Suborder Microchiroptera, Family: Phyllostomidae New world leaf-nosed, 160spp., Western U.S., Northern South America, nose-leaf helps beam echolocation, large traigus, insectivorous, carnivorous, sanguinivorous, vampire bats
Vampire bats (sub)tropical, large/sharp incisors & canines, reduces size/# cheek teeth, narrow esophagus, long tubular stomach, thin intestine, usually trivial amount blood loss, disease tramsmission (rabies/infection), ~3in bodies, anticoagulant in saliva (draculin)
Suborder Microchiroptera, Family: Vespertilionidae largest family (407spp), broad distribution & diverse, most insectivorous, some piscivorous, most cave roost, solitary->large colonies, skull: short rostrum, no post-orbital process, dentition: incisors separated medially, dilambdodont
Created by: jebeard