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Bio II Exam Ch.20-24

Fungi, Animals, and Plants

Chytridiomycota example: Parasite on frog skin
Zygomycota example: Black bread mold
Glomeromycota example: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Ascomycota example: Morels & truffels
Basiodiomycota example: Mushrooms & puffballs
Basic fungi characteristics: Eukaryotic, heterotrophic by secreting enzymes, cell walls composed primarily of chitin, more closely related to animals than plants.
The storage carbohydrate of fungi is: glycogen
Must fungi are multicellular, but _____ are unicellular: yeasts
Only fungi have what type of cells? dikaryotic; the cells have two genetically identical nuclei.
Microscopic, threadlike filaments that branch rapidly in a food source: hyphae
A mass of aggregated hyphae is called: mycelium
A mushroom is an example of a: fruiting body
Spores are either asexually or sexually reproduced. Asexual spores are called: conidia. Hyphae can produce conidia by mitosis.
Fungi classification is based on: spore type
Chytridomycetes produce motile spores called: zoospores; some are flagellated.
Zygomycetes are fast-growing and prolific. They produce: zygospores
Glomeromycetes only live in association with: plant roots
A fungi-plant root combination is called a: mycorhizza
With mycorhizza, the fungus exchanges minerals and nutrients with the plant roots at structures called: arbuscules
What happens during the mutualistic relationship between fungal hyphae and plants? The fungal hyphae absorb water and nutrients from soil and give plants sugar
Ascomycetes are a large group of fungi containing various lifestyles which include: symbiosis, decomposers, parasites, or mutalists. Some are even carnivorous.
Ascomycetes are ___ fungi. sac
Basidiomycetes contain familiar fungi such as: puffballs and mushrooms; they are club fungi.
What fungi live in plants but do not trigger disease symptoms? Endophytes; all plants harbor endophytes.
_____________ form the most common types of mycorrhiza. Glomeromycetes
_______ are fungi with green algae or cyanobacteria living among other hyphae. Lichens
In animals, cells bind to the: extracellular matrix
Many animal phyla originated during the: Cambrian explosion
The first branching point animal taxonomy distinguishes a clade with _______ from a clade with ______. true tissues; no true tissues
In parazoans (sponges), cells don't interact to provide specific functions; they do not have ___________. true tissues
Bilaterally symmetrical animals have a head and a tail end. This body plan selects for ________. Cephalization: sensory organs and a brain are on the head end.
Diploblastic means: two germ layers
Triploblastic means: three germ layers
In all phyla except sponges, the embryonic ball of cells called a blastula folds in on itself, forming a gastrulas
The ectoderm develops into the: skin and nervous system
The endoderm develops into the: digestive tract
The mesoderm develops into the: muscles and circulatory system
If the first indention of the gastrula develops into the mouth, the organism is a: protostome
If the first indention of the gastrula develops into the anus, the organism is a: deuterostome
A ________ symmetrical animal may have a coelom, pseudocoelom, or no coelom. bilaterally
A body cavity surrounded on all sides by mesoderm is a: coelom
An organism with no coelom at all is known as an: acoelomate
A body cavity surrounded on one side my mesoderm and the other side by endoderm is called a: pseudocoelom
What type of digestive tract do animals have if the mouth both takes in food and ejects waste? incomplete
Animals with _________ development resemble adults in their juvenile stage. direct
Indirect development involves what stage of life? Larval
Phylum Porifera example: sponges
Phylum Cnidaria examples: jellyfish, hydra, coral, and sea anemones.
Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) ecamples: fluke, tapeworms, and planarians.
Phylum Mollusca examples: snails, scallops, and squids.
Phylum Annelida examples: earthworms, leeches, and polychaetes; aka segmented worms.
Phylum Nematoda example: roundworms. These are unsegmented worms that are tapered at both ends and who molt their cuticle.
Phylum Arthropoda examples: trilobites, chelicerates, myriapods (millipedes & centipedes), crustaceans, and insects.
Crustaceans are a group of: mandibulates (insects are also mandibulates).
Phylum Echinoderma examples: sand dollars, sea stars, and sea urchins.
Phylum Chordata examples: humans and many other examples; most are vertebrates.
Four characteristics of phylum chordata: 1. Notochord: develops into a backbone in most cases. 2. Dorsal, hollow nervechord: develops into the spinal chord. 3. Pharyngeal pouches or slits. 4. Postanal tail.
What were the first chordates with vertebrae? Lancelets
Ostechthyes means: bony fish
Chondrichthyes means: cartilage fish
Jaws, lungs, precursors, and a bony skeleton first appeared in: fishes
What allows reptiles and mammals to breed in dry habitats? the amnion
Amniotes include: mammals, birds, and non-avian reptiles.
Ectotherm means: cold-blooded
What is required for metabolism, growth, and reproduction in plants? essential elements
Which macronutrients are the most abundant? carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
Soil is a complex mixture of: rock particles, organic matter, air, and water.
What is the dark, organic material that forms in soil when plant and animal matter decays called? humus
Topsoil is also known as the: A horizon
What does the B horizon consist of? clay and soil; aka subsoil.
What does the C horizon consist of? Mostly weathered rocks.
What is below the C horizon? bedrock
Symbiotic relationships with what type of bacteria help plants obtain useful forms of nitrogen? nitrogen-fixing
Some bacteria live in growths called ______ on roots. nodules
Vascular tissue forms what system that connects plant roots? The transportation system
The xylem pulls what up through the plant? water and minerals
Xylem transport is explained by what theory? The cohesion-tension theory. Because of cohesion, when water evaporates from the leaves in a process called transpiration, it pulls adjacent molecules closer to the stomata.
What is the Casparian strip? A waxy barrier that ensures all incoming material passes through cells.
What does the phloem push through the plant? Sugars
Roots and fruits, which don't carry out photosynthesis, are called: sinks.
What does the pressure-flow theory explain? Movement throughout the phloem.
Parasitic plants tap into the vascular tissue of a host plant. Name an example: misletoe
Explain the pressure-flow theory of transport: the pressure-flow theory suggests that phloem sap moves under positive pressure from "sources" to "sinks".
What exactly is a plant "source"? any plant part that produces or releases sugars.
What exactly is a plant "sink"? any plant part that does not photosynthesize. Sinks include flowers, fruits, roots, storage organs, and shoot apical meristems.
Flowers and seeds are produced by angiosperms that _______ reproduce, yielding genetically ______ offspring with traits derived from both parents. sexually; unique
When is asexual reproduction advantageous? When conditions in the environment are stable and plants are well adapted to their surroundings.
The angiosperms life cycle is called the: Alternation of Generations
A flowering plant missing male reproductive parts will still have: an embryo sac and egg cells.
What are the 2 results of double fertilization? a diploid zygote and a triploid endosperm nucleus.
What are cotyledons? "Seed leaves" of the embryo where shoots and roots form.
What hormone stimulates fruit development, controls elongation of cells in a stem, and suppresses growth of lateral buds? Auxins
What do Cytokinin hormones do? Promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots.
Auxins are primarily released from the ____ ____, and Cytokinins are primarily released from the ____. The counteracting effect of these hormones is called ______ ____________. shoot tip; roots; apical dominance.
Which hormone stimulates shoot elongation? Used by farmers to stimulate stem elongation and fruit growth. Gibberellins
Which hormone stimulates fruit ripening as well as shedding of leaves, flowers, and fruits? Ethylene
______ acid inhibits shoot growth, maintains seed dormancy, and stimulates closure of stomata and shedding of plant parts? Abscisic
As auxin molecules migrate away from the light, they accumulate on the _____ side of the stem. shaded
The photoreceptor in plants is called: phytochrome
Phytochrome helps plants sense what? day length
Directional growth in response to gravity is known as: gravitropism
Statoliths sink to the bottom of cells and therefore might help plants detect: gravity
The reaction of plants responding to touch is known as: thigmotropism
During ________, metabolism changes from synthesis to breakdown. senescence
Leaves at a high level of ethylene separate from the tree at what zone? The abscission zone.
Whorl 1, also known as the Calyx, contains which flower parts? Sepals
Whorl 2, also known as the Corolla, contains which flower parts? Petals
Whorl 3, made of male reproductive parts, contains what? The stamen, which is made up of the anther and the filament.
Whorl 4, made of female reproductive parts, contains what? The carpel, which is made up of the stigma, style, ovule, and ovary.
Created by: formula1fan