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Chapter 16

Arthropods

QuestionAnswer
exoskeleton A system of external plates that protect and support. Usually three layers thick Main component is chitin, which provides toughness and flexibility
molt To shed an exoskeleton, scales, feathers, or fur
thorax The body region between the head and the abdomen
cephalothorax A body region in some arthropods consisting of a fused head and thorax
abdomen body region posterior to the thorax
compound eye an eye composed of many individual lenses
simple eye an eye with only one lens
carapace The portion of the exoskeleton that covers the cephalothorax in some arthropods
swimmeret one of the small appendages on some crustaceans that is used for swimming and reproduction
gills a respiratory structure in aquatic organisms through which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged (used by crustaceans for respiration)
chelicera the first pair of appendages in arachnids; used for feeding; poisonous fangs in certain spiders
pedipalp the second pair of arachnid appendages; used for sensory perception
spinneret an organ in spiders and some insects that spin webs from the secretions of silk glands
book lung the plate-like respiratory structure found in arachnids
trachea a tube that extends from the larynx to the bronchi
statocyst an organ of equilibrium in crustaceans
5 common characteristics of all arthropods jointed appendages, body segmentation (3 segments: head, thorax, abdomen), open circulatory system, ventral nervous system, exoskeleton
Can crayfish regenerate? Only to replace lost appendages
blood flow in the crayfish pericaridial sinus > heart >dorsal blood vessel > dumps into the body cavity > recollects in the sternal sinus > gills > green glands > back to pericardial sinus
green glands an organ that excretes wastes in some crustaceans
poisonous spiders in the US black widow, brown recluse
two types of venom neurotoxin (affects nervous system), hemotoxin (affects circulatory system)
mandible a paired chewing mouthpart found in insects and some other arthropods
spiracle one of the small pores in an insect's body that function in breathing
malpighian tubule one of numerous threadlike tubules in insects that extracts wastes from the blood and empties them into the intestine
pheromone a chemical released by an animal which influences the behavior of another animal of the same species
complete metamorphosis a common type of insect development; has four stages-egg, larva, pupa, adult
incomplete metamorphosis a type of insect development in which eggs hatch into nymphs that eventually grow into adults. Three stages: egg, nymph, adult
naiad an aquatic insect nymph that possesses gills
chrysalis a protective case found in the pupal stage of metamorphosis of some insects, especially lepidopterans
caste among social insects, one of the groups in a colony that performs a particular function
insecticide a chemical or agent that destroys insects
tympanum tympanic membrane of some insects (allows for hearing sounds)
ptera means "wing". suffix on many orders of insects
orders of insects O. Orthoptera: grasshoppers, crickets O. Odonata: dragonflies, damselflies O. Coleoptera: beetles O. Lepidoptera: butterflies, moths O. Hymenoptera: bees, ants, wasps O. Diptera: flies, mosquitoes, gnats
Created by: marlynp
 

 



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