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Muscle

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Epimysium a sheath of fibrous elastic tissue surrounding a muscle.
Perimysium the sheath of connective tissue surrounding a bundle of muscle fibers.
Endomysium the delicate connective tissue surrounding the individual muscular fibers within the smallest bundles—compare epimysium.
Tendon a flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone
Muscle Fiber any of the elongated cells characteristic of muscle.
Myoblast a type of embryonic progenitor cell that differentiates to give rise to muscle cells. Skeletal muscle fibers are made when Myoblasts fuse together; muscle fibers therefore have multiple nuclei
Sarcoplasm the cytoplasm of striated muscle cells.
Transverse Tubules a deep invagination of the sarcolemma, which is the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle cells
Action Potential the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.
Myofilaments are the filaments of myofibrils constructed from proteins. The principal types of muscle are striated muscle, obliquely striated muscle and smooth muscle.
Thin Filaments one of the contractile elements in muscular fibers and other cells; in skeletal muscle, the actin filaments are about 7.5 nm wide and 1 mcm long, and attach to the transverse Z filaments.
Thick Filaments one of the contractile elements in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle fibers; in skeletal muscle, the filament is about 15 nm thick and 1.5 mcm long.
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum a system of membrane-bound tubules that surrounds muscle fibrils, releasing calcium ions during contraction and absorbing them during relaxation.
Triad The junction between the t tubules and the sarcoplasmic reticulum in striated muscle.
Cisternae An ultramicroscopic space or channel occurring between the membranes of the flattened sacs of the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi complex, or the two membranes of the nuclear envelope.
Sarcomeres are divided into bands of filaments made of actin or myosin.
Myofibrils are filaments of the proteins myosin and actin; these filaments slide past one another as the muscle contracts and expands.
Strated
Troponin is a complex of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T) that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle.
Tropomyosin is a two-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil protein found in cell cytoskeletons.
Active site is a small port in an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction
Actin is the most abundant protein in most eukaryotic cells. It is highly conserved and participates in more protein-protein interactions than any known protein.
Myosin are a large superfamily of motor proteins that move along actin filaments, while hydrolyzing ATP.
Newromusclar Junction is a place in the body where the axons of motor nerves meet the muscle, allowing them to transmit messages from the brain that cause the muscle to contract and relax.
Sarcolemma (Sarco (from Sarx) from Greek; Flesh, and Lemma from Greek; sheath.) also called the myolemma, is the cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber cell.
Created by: AntonioMEvans