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Anatomy 4

AG Embryology - fertilization to week 3

QuestionAnswer
abnormality of structure (and often function) that arises during embryological development congenital disorder
the study of heredity and how traits are passed on through generations genetics
How many chromosomes does a human have? 46; 22 paired autosomes, 2 sex chromosomes
point at which two chromatids are joined centromere
process whereby one cell divides resulting in two daughter cells genetically identical to parent cell mitosis
process whereby one cell divides to produce male and female gametes meiosis
organized profile of a person's chromosomes karyotype
deviation from usual number of chromosomes aneupoloidy (ex: Turner's syndrome (webbed neck, infertile) and Down's syndrome)
all of the genetic information contained within the set of chromosomes genome
unit of genetic information that determines the particular characteristic of a person gene
4 types of gene mutation deletion; duplication; inversion; translocation
proportion of individuals carrying a mutation that also expresses the phenotype penetrance; complete (all) or incomplete (only some)
tools for screening for genetic disorders in practice family history; medical history of client; perceptions
pre-embryonic period fertilization to 2 weeks
embryonic period week 3 to week 8
fetal period week 9 to birth
hard shell around the oocyte zona pellucida
male and female pronuclei fuse creating the _________ zygote
series of mitotic divisions, each cell is a blastomere cleavage
day 3-4; 16-celled structure morula
day 5; the zygote becomes a ________ blastocyst
inner cells of the blastocyst are the ________;outer cells of the blastocyst are the _______ embryoblast; trophoblast
when does the blastocyst begin to embed into the uterine wall? day 6 - 7
day 8; embryoblast differentiates into _____ and ____ epiblast and hypoblast (the bilaminar disc)
day 14; hypoblast cells become columnar and form a thickened circular area called the ____ prechordal plate (future site of the mouth)
period where there is greatest susceptibility to teratogens beginning of embryonic period; week 3 - 5
process of establishing the three germ layers to create trilaminar germ disk gastrulation
epiblast cells invaginate at the ____________ creating three layers; ___, ____, ____ primitive streak; ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
two places remain bilaminar during gastrulation. What are they? prechordal plate (mouth) and the cloacal plate (anus)
ectoderm derivatives CNS, PNS, skin, pituitary gland
mesoderm derivatives cartilage, muscles, bone
endoderm derivatives lining of respiratory tract
serves as the basis for development of axial skeleton and future site of vertibrae notochord
week 3; thickening of ectoderm giving rise to CNS neural plate
begins with trilaminar disk ends with a corn on the cob structure neurulation
abnormal neural crest development; autosomal dominant genetic disorder neurocristopathies
what can reduce neural tube defects by 70% if mother takes it during pregnancy? folic acid
somites are of ___dermal origin mesodermal
somites forming ribs and vertibrae sclerotome
somites forming muscles of body and limbs dermomyotome
gives rise to cells that form most of the PNS and CNS neural crest cells
prosencephalon becomes the .... telencephalon (cerebral hemispheres)and diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus)
mesencephalon becomes the ..... mesencephalon (midbrain)
rhombencephalon becomes the ..... metencephalon (pons and cerebellum)and myelencephalon (medulla)
week 6; neural canal becomes the ... ventricular system
process of forming connections, continued growth and development of neurons synaptogenesis
each pharyngeal arch contains four things. What are they? a blood vessel, a cartilaginous rod, a muscular component, a nerve
Created by: Aureole