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Pharmacology

Chapter 5-8 Kailyn's Review

QuestionAnswer
What are the similarities between NSAID's, Salicylates, and Acetaminophen? All three are analgesic and antipyretic
How do the Salicylates (Aspirin) differ from the NSAID's and Acetaminophen? It contains Analgesic, Antipyretic, Anti-inflammatory, Antiplatelet, and Uricosuric
How do the NSAID's differ from the Salicylates and Acetaminophen? It contains Analgesic, Antipyretic, Anti-inflammatory
How do the Acetaminophen's (Tylenol) differ from NSAID's and Salicylates? It contains Analgesic and Antipyretic
What is the significance of Acetaminophen's compared to NSAID's and Salicylates concerning adverse reactions? Acetaminophen is easiest on the stomach (less effects)
What adverse reaction are you able to experience when taking Salicylates? Tinnitus
What is Reye Syndrome most common with? Aspirin
Are NSAID's, Salicylates, or Acetaminophen's avoided during pregnancy? NSAID's
What drug causes anticoagulation? Salicylates
T/F Acetaminophen's are remarkably free of drug interactions. True
What are Salicylates used for? Mild to moderate pain, control fever, treat inflammation, prevent unwanted blood clotting, MONA
What are NSAID's used for? Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, fever, dysmenorrhea, and pain.
What are Acetaminophen's used for? Pain and fever
What GI Effects are common is Salicylates? Dyspepsia (heartburn), nausea, vomiting, and gastric bleeding
Why are Dyspepsia (heartburn), nausea, vomiting, and gastric bleeding common adverse effects for Salicylates? Salicylates are an acid.
What does the adverse effect of bleeding do for the Salicylates? Interferes with clotting mechanisms by reducing platelet adhesiveness.
When giving Aspirin to children why is it a BIG no, no to not give it to them when they have the flu or chicken pox? Reye Syndrome can occur.
When taking Salicylates why is it important to be aware of the hepatic and renal adverse effects? Can produce hepatotoxicity
What drug can cause problems in pregnancy and nursing for example an increase of still birth, congenital abnormalities, neonatal death and decreased birth rate? Salicylates
Who is more likely to have a hypersensitivity to Salicylates? Asthmatics
What drug can interfere with normal protective mechanisms in the stomach? NSAID's
What are some of the common GI adverse effects of the NSAID's? Gastric irritation, pain, and bleeding
What drug intertwines with a dose-dependent side effects that include sedation, dizziness, confusion, mental depression, headache, vertigo, and convulsion? NSAID's CNS Effects
The blood clotting adverse effect for NSAID's plays what role? Inhibits platelet aggregation; which remains only as long as the drug is present in the blood.
Renal adverse effects for NSAID's include what? Renal failure, cystitis, and increased incidence of UTI
What are some other adverse effects for NSAID's that aren't in a specific category? Muscle weakness, ringing in ears (Tinnitus), hepatitis, hematologic problems, blurred vision.
Ulcerative stomatitis, gingival ulcerations, and dry mouth and part of what adverse effect of NSAID's that we should keep an eye on in our career? Oral Adverse Effects
What are the symptoms of an NSAID hypersensitivity? Hives or itching
Prolong gestation, delay of parturition, and production of dystocia are adverse effects on what condition of a female? Pregnancy and nursing
What type of drug do we want to avoid in pregnancy and nursing mothers? A. NSAID's B. Salicylates C. Acetamenophen's A. NSAID's
Who should avoid Acetaminophen? Pt.'s with hepatic disease, alcoholics, or pt.'s that ingest three or more alcoholic beverages a day.
What are the symptoms of Gout? extreme pain in the joints
T/F: Gout is inherited and occurs primarily in men. It is a disease traditionally of the wealthy. True
T/F: NSAID's, Colchicine, Probenecid and Allopurinol are all available to prevent Gout! False, Probenecid and Allopurinol are to prevent Gout; but Colchicine, Probenecid are used to treat acute attacks of gout.
What are the two components of pain? Perception and Reaction
What component of pain is the physical part? Perception
What component of pain is the psychological part? Reaction
What increases the threshold of pain? Sleep, sympathy, activities, and anaglesics
What decreases the threshold of pain? Benzodiazapines (Valium), emotion, instability, anxiety, certain nationalities, fear and apprehension, fatigue, youth, women
What are common drugs that interact with Salicylates? Warfarin and Probenecid
What is Warfarin and when used with Aspirin what interactions occur? Oral anticoagulant highly protein bound to plasma protein binding sites; aspirin can displace the drug from its binding sites increasing its anticoagulant effect.
When Probenecid is used with Aspirin what interactions occur? Interferes (blocks pathways) with the drugs uricosuric effect that can then cause an acute attack of Gout.
T/F: When NSAID's are intertwined with Lithium it may increase Lithium toxicity in pt.'s taking Lithium for bipolar affective disorders? True, NSAID's can increase effect
When Digoxin and and NSAID's are used together what can happen? It may increase the effect it has and is used for congestive heart failure.
What do NSAID's increase the effect of? A. antihypertensives B. diuretics C. ACE inhibitors D. Beta-blockers E. all of the above E. all of the above
What form of drug is remarkably free from drug interactions but still can have an hepatotoxcicty effect if used with agents that induce the hepatic microsomal enzymes? Acetaminophen's
What is a useful clinical approach with Acetaminophen's? When an alternating therapy with NSAID's and Acetaminophen's are used.
Define Analgesia. Raises the pain threshold
Define Cough Suppression. Depresses the cough center in the medulla (antitussisve).
Define Myosis. Pinpoint pupils
What are the actions of the Opioids? 1. bind to receptors in the CNS, and Spinal cord 2. produce an altered perception of reaction to pain
Dolphins, Enkephalins, Endorphins, and Dynorphins are all natural opioid-like substances in the body except for which one? Dolphins
Is it true that the body makes its own narcotics? Yes
All include the common side effects of opioids except for which one(s)? A. Sedation B. Gardening C. Nausea D. Vomiting E. Heart Murmur F. Dizziness G. Headache B. Gardening and E. Heart Murmur
What are the strong opioids that are common? Morphine, Methadone (Dolophine), Meperidine (Demerol), Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)
What are the moderate opioids that are common? Oxycodone ( in percodan, percocet, tylox, roxiprin, roxicet), Pentazocine (in talxin NX)
What are the mild opioids that are common? Hydrocodone ( in vicodine, lotab, lorcet), Codeine (tylenol #3, empirin #3), dihydrocodeine (in synalgos-DC), Propoxyphene (in darvocet-N #100)
What drug that is used to treat opioid abuse blocks the effect of the narcotic? Narcan-naloxone
What is used for the maintenance of the opioid free state in detoxified, formerly opioid-dependent pt.s? Naltrexone (trexan)
Organisms initially responsible for a dental infection are primarily what type of bacteria? Gram -positive cocci
T/F: After a short time, the gram -positive infections begins to include a variety of both gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic organisms is called a Mixed Infection. True, Two bacteria types equals a mix.
T/F: Overtime the proportion of bacteria that are anaerobic increase until it consists of predominantly anaerobic flora. True, anaerobic flora will predominate
What five antibiotics belong the the Penicillin family? Amoxicillin, Penicillin G and V, Penicillinase-resistant penicillins (Augmentin), Extended-spectrum penicillin, Ampicillin (penicillnase-susceptible
What three drugs belong to the Marolide's family? Eyrthromycin, Azithromycin (zithromx), Clarithromycin (Biaxin)
In what forms does Tetracycline's come in? Gels (cheaper doing a whole arch) and a powder delivery (cheaper if doing a couple of teeth)
Cleocin is part of what antibitoic family? Clindamycin
Metronidazole includes what antibiotic in its family that cannot be taken with alcohol? Flagyl
What are the antibiotics that are part of the first generation of the Cephalosporins family? Cephalexin (Keflex) and Cephradine (Velosef, Anspor)
What are the antibiotics that are part of the second generation of the Cephalosporins family? Cefaclor (ceclor, raniclor)
What antibiotic causes a super-infection as a potential adverse effect? Clindamycin because it is strong and will call the bad guys and the good guys
With what drug is a GI upset not common? Azithromycin
What are some of the potential adverse effects that could come from antibiotics? Allergic reaction, Drug interactions, GI complaints, Dose forms, Cost, Photo reactive, Cardiac arrhythmia, Pregnancy contraindications, Allergies, and cross reactions with other drugs.
What are some of the common medications people are allergic to? Pen V K, Amoxicillin, Cephalexin, Augmentin, Ceclor
What drug has a cross reaction to Pen? Cephalexin
What drugs have a common side effect of GI upset? Tetracycline. Clindamycin, Augmentin, and Ceclor
What drug plays a role in caridac arrhythmia? Azithromycin
What does Tetracycline do when the pt. is in the sun for a period of time? SUNBURN!
What are some drug interactions? Oral contraceptives, Oral anticoagulants, and Other antiinfectives
Define Anti-infective Agents Substances that act against or destroy infections
Define Anti-bacterial Agents Substance that destroy or suppress the growth or multiplication of bacteria
Define Antibiotic Agents chemical substances produced by microorganisms that have the capacity, in dilute solutions, to destroy or suppress the growth or multiplication of bacteria or prevent their action.
Define Anti-microbial Agents Substances that destroy or suppress the growth of multiplication of microorganisms
Define Anti-fungal Agents Substances that destroy or suppress the growth of multiplication of fungi
Define Anti-protozoal Agents Attack amebae, giardia, etc
Define Anti-viral Substances that destroy or suppress the growth or multiplication of viruses
Define Bactericidal Ability to kill bacteria
Define Bacteriostatic Ability to inhibit or retard the multiplication of growth of bacteria
Define Blood (Serum) Level Concentration of anti-infective agent in the blood or serum
Define Resistance the natural or acquired ability of an organism to be immune to or resist the effects of an anti-infective agent
Define Spectrum Range of activity of a drug
Define Super-infection and Supra-infection Infection caused by proliferation of microorganisms different from those causing the original infection
Define Synergism Combination produces more than an additive effect
Define Antagonism Occurs when a combination produces less effect than either agent alone
Define Infection Invasion by pathogenic microorganism and reaction of tissue
What does not constitute and Invasion? Presence of a pathogen
What is Candida Albicans "Thrush " also called? Yeast Infection
What are forms of Tinea also known as? Ring worm or Athletes Foot
What are some common Anti-fungal (OTHER) medications used? Amphoericin B, Griseofluvin, Nystatin, Imidazoles, Clotrimazole, Ketoconazole,Fluconazole, Miconazole, Itraconazole
What are the last five letters of the most common Anti-fungal medications? AZOLE
What are some common Anti-viral (HERPES SIMPLEX) medications? Acyclovir, Docosanol, Penciclovir, Famciclovir
What are the last six common letters of the most common Anti-viral (HERPES SIMPLEX) medications? CLOVIR
What are some common Anti-viral (AIDS "cocktails-take all medications) medications? Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase, Protease inhibitors, Combinations, Other anti-viral agents
What is common in (AIDS "cocktails-take all medications) medications names? Some end in SIDE and ASE
Mucocutaneous candidal infections are managed with what medications? Nystatin, Clotrimazole, Ketoconazole, or Fluconazole
What are common Imidazoles used in dentistry? Clotrimazoles, Micronazole, Flucanazole, and Itraconazole
What medication is used for oropharyngeal candidiasis? Clotrimazoles
What drug manages of mucocutaneous and thrush (dental)? Ketoconazole
These are used for the treatment of candidiasis, what are they (medical)? Hisoplasmosis, and Paracoccidioidomycosis
Fluconazole is for serious systemic fungal infections like what? Oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis
What is used for the first treatment for fungal nail infections? Itraconazole also for blastomucosis, histoplasmosis, and aspergillosis
Amphotericin B (amphoterrible) does what? treats serious systemic fungal infections
What treats ring worm, but does not include candida organisms? Griseofulvin
What is Nystatin used for? Treatment and prevention of oral candidiasis or in susceptible cases
Nystatin treats what immunocompromised viral or fungal disease? Thrush
What type of infections are more common in the immunocompromised? Fungal and Viral
Define Analgesic Pain relief
Define Opioid Primarily in the CNS, narcotic, made from poppies
Define Somniferous Tending to induce sleep
Define Anti-pyretic Reduce fever
Define Anti-inflammatory Reduce inflammation
Define Anti-peristaltic Reduce digestive movements (contractions)
Define Narcotic Opioid
Define Peripheral Analgesic Pain relief to peripheral nervous system (non-opioid)
Define Central Analgesic Pain relief to CNS (Opioid)
Define Salicylates Aspirin
Define NSAID's Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Ibuprofen, Mortin and Advil)
Define Zero-Order Kinetics When the half-life varies with the dose because a constant amount rather than a constant percentage is metabolized per hour
Define Anti-platelet Doesn't coagulate (no blood clots)
Define Uricosuric Increase secretion of uric acid
Define Gout Inherited disease occuring primarily in men with onset that ususally involves one joint (ususally a big toe or knee), Excess uric acid, excessive production or reduced secretion due to diet; NSAIDs & Colchicine to treat this
Define Enteric Coating Polymer barrier that is applied to oral medication
Define Buffer Neutralizer
Define Cyclooxygenase (COX) responsible for many adverse reactions of NSAID's, older NSAID's inhibits COX 1 and Aspirin inhibits COX 2
Define Prostaglandin COX blocks, reduction results in reduction of pain
Define Naxolone (Narcan) Inhibits the function of drugs, opioid antagonist
Define Methadone Used primarily to treat opioid addicts
Define Percocet An intermediate, generic is oxycodone
Define Oxycodone Analgesic, anti-peristaltic, anti-tussive, GI irritant
Define Hydrocodone Analgesic (less), anti-peristaltic, anti-tussive GI irritant
Define Resistance The natural or acquired ability of an organism to be immune to or resist the effects of an anti-infective agent
Define Synergism Additive effect
Define Antagonism Blocks the effect of the agonist
Created by: daisenmurray