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OCHS Bio - Unit 6

Unit 6 - DNA

Vocab WordAnswer (from textbook)Helper/Anchor Phrase
nucleic acid macromolecule used to store genetic information DNA or RNA
deoxyribonucleic acid genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents DNA - contains deoxyribose sugar
nucleotide the building block of nucleic acids - made of a sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogen base nucleotides make up DNA; they are the "letters" of the genetic code as well as the "backbone" of DNA
nitrogen base adenine, theymine, guanine, and cytosine A,T,C,G - the "letters" of the genetic code
Chargaff's Rule (Base Pairing) the percentage of A is equal to the percentage of T, and the percentage of G is equal to the percentage of C A binds with T, C binds with G = base pairing
James Watson and Francis Crick scientists who figured out the shape of DNA as a double helix double helix scientists
chromosome threadlike structure of DNA and protein that contains genetic information; in eukaryotes, chromosomes are found in the nucleus; in prokaryotes, they are found in the cytoplasm chunks of DNA
histone protein proteins that DNA is wrapped around; help to condense the overall size of DNA, allowing it to fit in a smaller area "beads on a string"
gene sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait; factor that is passed from parent to offspring the parts of DNA that determine our traits
DNA replication process of copying DNA prior to cell division copying DNA
DNA polymerase principal enzyme involved in DNA replication enzyme (ends in "ase") that copies DNA
semi-conservative a term used to describe the copying of DNA, since half of the original DNA is used as a template to create the new DNA strand half old, half new
ribonucleic acid single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose RNA; used to make proteins
transformation process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria bacteria became deadly because they transformed - Frederick Griffith's experiment
Created by: nickbudz