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sp 461 final

opening postsynapitc cholide cl+ channels generally results in what hyperpolarization of the possynaptic cell
opening postsynaptic sodium na+ channels generally results in what depolarization of the postsynaptic cell
speech disorders resulting from paralysis weakness, or incoordinatin of the speech musculature taht is neurologic orgin dysarthrias
pathological laughing and cryng can result from damage to which two brain regions brainstem and cerebellum
which is the cortical layer that recieves input from other brain structures 4
Where does the Dorsal tract travel after it synapses at the Medulla? VPL Ventero Postero Lateral nucleus of Thalmus
Where does the Dorsal Tract Terminate Post central Gyrus in Parietal Lobe
pre central gyrus, abduvens nerve, cerebellum and basal ganglia are all involved in what movement
what is the most caudal portion of the brainstem medulla
all afferent spinal tracts make obligatory stops at the thalamus except spinocerebellar
primary auditory cortex, wernickes area, hershls gyrus and planum temporale are all located in the temporal lobe and important for language
if somone stimulates hershls gyrus what might you hear tones at different frequencies
what is the only cranial nerve to exit on the dorsal side of the spinal cord facial
in which aphasia is brocas area cut off from frontal motor areas, impairing only spontaneous speach transcortical motor
What 2 sensory tracts travel through the Ventero postero lateral nucleus of the thalmus dorsal, anterolateral
where does the antero lateral tract travel after leaving the ganglia dorsal horn
the reticular formation part of the anterolateral pathway comes after which synapase dorsal horn
what is the side synapse of the anterolateral tract which comes after the reticular formation superior colliculus
what stop on the antero lateral tract comes after the superior colliculus thalmus vpl
where does the anterolateral tract terminate primary somatosensory cortex
Where does the anterolateral tract decussate at entry level
transcortical sensory aphasia wernickes cut off from association cortex. language comprehension impaired, paraphasias.. can still repear
damage to mgn, primary auditory cortex and corpus calosum result in what pure word deafness
global aphasia everything wrong damage to what areas nearly complete occlusion of mca
transcortiacl motor aphasia often involves blockage of what aca
what type of sensory info does the spinothalamic tract carry crude pain and temperature, mechanical stress, local metabolism, cell rupture, skin parasites, immune hormone activity
brokas and wernickes involve blockage of what specific branches of mca
Along the spinalthalamic tract, where does the neuron synapse after leaving the dorsal root ganglia Lamina 1 neurons
Along the spinalthalamic tract, what synapse follows lamina 1 neurons homeostatic control regions (e.g. NTS)
Along the spinalthalamic tract, what synapse precedes the synapse at the thalmus vpM the homeostatic control regions (e.g) NTS
What sensory tract passes through the thalmus vp M Spinothalamic
After which juncture along the spinalthalamic tract does the synapse terminate vpM (thalmus)
Where does the spino thalamic tract terminate Posterior insula
Where do pyramidal motor tracts cross at the Medulla
where to extrapyramidal motor tracts cross above the medulla
Describe the path of the corticospinal tract by place of synapse primary motor cortex(precentralgyrus), axon in internal capsule, medula oblongata, spinal cord, motor neuron, skeletal muscle.
where does the corticospinal tract dessucate at the medulla
what type of dessucation occurs for the cortico spinal tract pyrimidal
where does the corticospinal tract originate the primary motor cortex
after leaving the medulla, where does the corticospinal tract go a motor neuron in the spinal cord
after going through a motor neuron in the spinal cord, where does the corticospinal tract terminate skeletal muscle motor neuron
prozac blocks the seretonin re-uptake transporter on pre-synaptic axon terminal membranes. What does this accomplish Increases the amount of seretonin available in the synaptic cleft
an axoaxonic synapse links neuronal structures how axon to axon
what maps the body on the postcentral and precentral gyrus' the homunculus
what type of matter of the spinal cord process information the gray matter
what area of the spinal cord is for sensory processing dorsal horn
what area of the spinal cord is for motor processing ventral horn
what type of information does the spinocerebellar tract carry to the brain somato sensory input (important for coordinating, complex movements, posture
where does the spinocerebellar tract originate in a spinal border cell of the sacral spinal cord
where does the spinalcerebellar tract terminate in the cerebral cortex and deep cerebral nuclei
what does the spinocerebellar tract pass through immediately before terminating in the cerebral cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei superior cerebellar peduncle
where does the cortical spinal tract decussate at the medulla, is pyramidal decussation
what does the corticalspinal tract pass through on it's way to the internal capsule basis pedunculi
what spinal tract has no intervening nuclei from the primary motor cortex to th motor neurons of the spinal cord corticospinal
what spinal tract transmits motor commands to muscle the corticospinal tract
what neurotransmitter is critical for movement and found in the substantia niagra dopamine
what nucleus does the spinocerebellar tract travel through within the thoracic spinal cord Clarke's
which has fewer axons, the corticospinal or the rubrospinal tract rubrospinal
where does the rubrospinal tract originate in the midbrain(red nucleus)
where does the rubrospinal tract decussate in the midbrain
what type of decussation occurs for the rubrospinal tract ventral tegmental
if the corticospinal tract is damaged, tract provides residual voluntary muscle control rubrospinal tract
within the rubrospinal tract, what is the red nucleus part of the cerebellum to cortex pathway
which of the three motor tracts is extrapyramidal (crosses above the medulla) vestibulospinal tract
where does the vestibulospinal tract originate in the lateral vestibular nucleus
what does the vestibulospinal tract accomplish integrates vestibular input (via cranial nerve VIII)with muscle movement for balance
Where does all taste information go To the solitary nucleus
What is critically important for swallowing, specifically laryngeal contraction and elevation` nucleus ambiguus
what cranial nerves are associated with swallowing 9, 10, 11
What neurotransmitter is associated with substantia niagra dopamine
locus cerelious is a sourse of what nuerotransmitter norepinephrine
where is locus cerulious in the brainstem, specifically, the pons
what is the raphne nuclei a source of seretonin
where are the raphne nuclei located in the brainstem
what is your mnemonic for cranial nerve function some say marry monny but my brother says big breasts matter most
which cranial nerves enter and leave the thalmus 1 and 2, olfactory and optic
which cranial nerves enter and leave the brainstem 3-12
olfactory nerve: where does the path begin chemoreceptors in the olfactory bulb
what standard nerve stop does the olfactory nerve circumvent thalmus
olfactory nerve: from the olfactory bulbs, what is the next stop olfactory tract, CN1
olfactory nerve: Where does the olfactory tract lead to cortex (entorhinal, piriform) and amygdala
what 3 cranial nerves deal with moving the eye cn 3, 4, 6. oculomotor, trochlear, abducens
how does the binding of neurotransmitters to ionotropic postsynaptic receptors change the membrane potential for the postsynaptic neuron by directly opening pores in the receptors that let certain ions through
what would many rapid EPSP (excitory postsynaptic potential) near each other on the postsynaptic cell probably lead to action potential in a postsynaptic cell
what cranial nerve carries visual info optic
where does the optic nerve terminate thalamus
optic nerve: after begining with the photoreceptors, where does the info travel ganglion cells
optic nerve: visual information reaches the optic nerves after passing through ganglion cells
optic nerve the optic nerves precede what step in the visual pathway optic chiasm
optic nerve; optic tracts carry info to the thalmus following what optic chiasm
what cranial nerve controls 4/6 of the muscles that move the eye (including eyelid) oculomotor
what two cranial nerves controls just one muscle of the eye each trochlear, abducens
what is the only cranial nerve to exit and enter dorsally trochlear
Are the 3 muscles that move the eye purely motor? yes
the peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of which structures peripheral nerves, autonomic, and dorsal root ganglia
what nerves carry somatosensation for the head 5 trigeminal, 7, 9, 10
of the nerves that carry somatosensation for the head, which is most important Trigeminal
where does the trigeminal nerve info begin at mechanoreceptors/painreceptors
trigeminal nerve: from the mechanoreceptors, where does the info travel trigeminal ganglia
trigeminal nerve: the main trigeminal sensory nucleus is preceded by which stop along the pathway trigeminal ganglia
trigeminal nerve: the main trigeminal sensory nucleus comes before which stop The thalmus VPM
trigeminal nerve: Does the trigeminal nerve through the thalmus VPM or VPL VPM
trigeminal nerve: Where does the trigeminal nerve terminate somatosensory cortex
trigeminal nerve: what is the step on this pathway directly before termination at the somatosensory cortex thalmus VPM
what brainstem nuclei are directly associated with auditory processing inferior colliculi
What type of brain cell is responsible for mylinating axons in the CNS oligodendrocyte
What are the three main structural components of a typical nerve cell axon, dendrite, soma (nucleus)
why does the rising phase of action potential occur so quickly the na+ channel opens extremely fast at threshold -.55mV
In the rising phase of action potential, what is the threshold level that na+ channels open at extremely fast-.55mV
How many muscles control facial expression 44
Stapedius muscle in ear, and facial expression are controlled by the motor aspect of which nerve facial, 5
What nerve carries the sensory information from the anterior 2/3s of the tongue Facial
what are the 2 neural pathways involved in emotional expression voluntary, spontaneous
What are brief facial announcements of deep emotion/feeling lasting 1/20th of a second, followed by repression called Microexpressions
Emotion: What can a small stroke in the brainstem or cerebellum lead to PLC (pathological laughing and crying)
What part of emotional expression do brainstem nuclei control muscles of facial expression, head and neck movements, eye movements, diaphragm
What part of the emotional expression system influences timing and threshold for ongoing episodes of laughing/crying cerebellum
What cranial nerve enters and exits at the medulla cranial nerve 8, vestibular division
3 semicircular canals, one utricle, and one saccule make up the five vestibular organs
cranial nerve 8 vestibular division: begins where at the medulla/pons, vestibular nuclei
cranial nerve 8 vestibular division:ventral posterior nucleus of the thalmus comes after which step in the chain the medulla/pons, vestibular nuclei
where does the vestibular division of cn 8 terminate vestibular cortex, which is the spacial part of the parietal lobe
what is the spacial part of the parietal lobe called vestibular cortex
cranial nerve 8 vestibular division: what central step comes before termination in the vestibular cortex thalmus, ventral posterior nuclei
tinnitus (ringing in the ear)can be caused by lesions in what division of cn8 cochlear division
no hearing in ipsilateral ear can be caused by lesions in what division of cn8 cochlear
what are the 2 divisions of the vestibular cochlear nerve cn8 vestibular, cochlear
cn8 cochlear division: primarily carries what type of info afferent info from the cochlea
cn8 cochlear division: where is the cochlear nucleus, where the nerve begins, located pons
cn8 cochlear division: where is the superior olivary tract pons
where is the inferior colliculus midbrain
where is the auditory cortex temporal lobe
which cranial nerve controls the posterior 1/3 of taste and touch for the tongue, along with afferents from the eustachian tube, tongue, pharynx and efferents to the salivary gland and muscle for swallowing` cranial nerve 9. glossopharyngeal
if someone couldnt produce saliva or swallow, what cranial nerve is a likely culprit cn9 glossopharyngeal
n9 glossopharyngeal: where are the primary sensory neurons in the ganglia outside of the brainstem
n9 glossopharyngeal: where does the sensory portion end solitary nucleus
n9 glossopharyngeal: what are the motor functions swallowing, salivation
n9 glossopharyngeal: what muscle allows for swallowing and what part is associated stylopharyngeus muscle, nucleus ambiguus
n9 glossopharyngeal: salivation by what gland, where parotid salivary gland, inferior salivary nucleus
what does cn 10, vagus do major afferent/efferent innervation of the viscera
what cranial nerve stimulates the heart vagus
what cranial nerve has major parasympathetic control vagus 10
what cranial nerve integrates taste with viscera info in the solitary nucleus vagus 10
what cranial nerve recieves sensation from a small part of the external ear, and taste from a small region of the tongue near the epiglottis vagus 10
what cn involves major afferent input from the abdomen and thorax along with afferent input from they larynx and lower pharynx vagus 10
from where does the afferent info of the layrnx and pharynx come vagus 10
where are the primary neurons for cn 10 vagus in ganglia outside the medulla
the descending nucleus of vagus is associated with ear sensation
nucleus ambiguus is gray matter in the brain and a source of motor output
what are the motor functions of vagus 10 efferent output to the palatal/pharyngeal muscles (ambiguus), output to visceral glands, organs (dorsal motor nucleus)
what is the cranial portion of spinal accessory nerve 11 now considered part of vagus
cn 11 spinal accessory: from where does the cranial portion arise nucleus ambiguus medulla
where is the nucleus ambiguus medulla
cn 11 spinal accessory: what does the cranial portion innervate intrinsic muscles of the larynx
cn 11 spinal accessory: from where does the spinal portion arise accessory nucleus
cn 11 spinal accessory: what does the spinal portion innervate muscles of neck and back
what two things is the spinal accessory nerve responsible for innervating intrinsic muscles of larynx, muscles of neck and back
what part of the thalmus does the optic nerve terminate in lateral geniculate nucleus
what does hypoglossal nerve 12 innnervate intrinsic/extrinsic muscles of tongue
from where does the hypoglossal nerve arise the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla
what part of the vascular system offers both posterior and anterior communicating circle of willis
what are the 2 parts of the internal carotid aca, mca
Foramen Rotundum Trigeminal (maxillary division)
Foramen ovale trigeminal (mandibular division
foramen internal acoustic meatus facial and auditory nerves
jugular foramen glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory
foramen hypoglossal canal hypoglossal nerve
foramen magnum spinal accessory nerve, some artieries, medulla
upper motor neurons plus interneurons are part of what cns
lower motor neurons plus 12 cranial nerve pairs and 31 spinal nerve pairs are part of what pns
Where do both afferent and efferent nerves synapse within the spinal cord neuromuscular juncture
upper motor neurons from pyramidal and extrapyramidal tracts synapse with lower motor nuclei in the brainstem
cell bodies of lower motor nuclei are grouped inside the brainstem nuclei
cell bodies of sensory neurons gather in the cranal ganglia
cranial nerves are attached to the brainstem at the cranial nerve nuclei
what cn does touch for the anterior 2/3 of tongue trigeminal
where does trigeminal originate pons
3 trigeminal mastication muscles tensor veli palatini, anterior belly of diagastric, mylohyoid
what reflex is trigeminal related to jaw jerk
where cranial nerve provides taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue facial
what is important for visual orienting superior coliculi
what is important for integrating auditory info inferior coliculi
what is the encompassing term for neocortex, made up of: cell bodies and dendrites only (note dendrites included due to proximity to cell bodies grey matter
what type of pump in an excitable membrane is referred to as a 2 way transporter sodium/potassium
are sodium and potassium channels in an excitable membrane voltage gated sometimes, sometimes not
bumps on the brain gyri
grooves in the brain sulci and fissure
difference in appearance predict difference in function
what are actions or movements, many of them public, visible to others as they occur in the face, voice and behaviors emotions
emotionally competent stimulus the object or event, real or recalled triggers an emotion
3 types of emotions background, primary, social
partial or complete loss of language abilities following brain damage, often without the loss of cognitive faculties or the ability to move muscles used in speech aphasia
procedure whereby a single hemisphere of the brain is anesthestized wada
do wernickes or brocas patients make more paraphasic errors wernickes
bundle of axons connecting 2 cortical areas arcuate fasciculus
comprehension is good, speech is fluent, but cannot repeat words in this aphasia conduction
conduction aphasia involves lesions to what area parietal cortex and arcuate fasciculus
what is the largest bundle of axons providing communication between the cerebral hemispheres corpus callosum
the region of the temporal lobe is usually signifigantly larger in what hemisphere left
posterior belly of diagastric, stylohyiod, and platysma are the muscles innervated by what nerve facial
what cranial nerve has the gag reflex glosopharyngeal
what is the motor muscle of the tongue stylopharyngeus
for speech, what are the major motor areas of vagus velum, pharynx, larynx
trapexius and sternocleidomastoid are major motor muscles for what cn spinal accessory
what are the major motor muscles for hypoglossal intrinsic and extrinsic of tongue, geniohyoid
what are the four parts of the papez circuit, in order hypothalmus, thalmus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus
cigulate cortex and insula are what type of cortex paleocortical (old)
what part of the temporal lobe is associated with object recognition ventral
kluver bucy syndrome : memory loss, indiscriminate sexual expression, visual agnosia, caused by what bilateral temporal lobectomy,
what is a large subcortical nucleus with many inputs and outputs that is a key player in emotions (particularly fear amygdala
what structure is just anterior to the hippocampus, in the temporal lobe, and fairly medial amygdala
fear causes this to respond and happiness dampens its response amygdala
amygdala tells brainstem nuclei to freeze, orient
amygdala tells hypothalmus stress horemones
when a neuron is at its resting potential , is the inside more positive or negative than the outside negative
urbach wiethe disease bilateral calcification of amygdala, dont experience or recognize anger or fear, dont orient to unexpected stimuli
2 reasons preceptions dont reflect the real world 1. detection (many forms of energy are not) 2. translation (sensory systems convert energy into electrochemical nerve impulses)
stimulus aspects (our stimuli is m.i.l.d.) modality locality intensity duration.
2 types of coding for stimulus modality 1. labeled line 2. pattern
labeled line code specialized sensory receptors. mylinated, sharp initial pain
pattern code pattern of activity in variety of receptors unmylinated, long lasting pain
stimulus intensity coded in 2 ways 1 frequency 2 population
duration of stimulus driven by changes in stimuli (what nerv systm respnds bst to)
3 components to sound 1 frequency 2 intensity 3 complexity
frequency measured by; experienced as cycles per second; pitch
intensity measured by; experienced as wave amplitude; loudness
complexity measured by ; experienced as types of combinations of waves; timbre, quality
interaural time delay occurs for low frequency sounds 20/2000 hz, if sound is off to one side; is difference in when a sound reaches one ear versus another
interaural intensity difference occurs for high freq 2000-20,000 hz. between 2 ears, occurs because head shadow blocks the sound
what type of aphasia results from damage to the language processing mechanism in cortex primary
what type of aphasia results from damage to memory, precept, or attentional systems secondary
what type of aphasia is caused by damage to the posterior portion of the left inferior gyrus of the frontal lobe brocas
what type of glial cell helps clean up waste and cellular debris microglia
what aphasia results from damage to the posterior regions of superior temporal (heschl's) gyrus wernickes
what did wernicke propose that the posterior portion of heschls gyrus was for memory for words
what voltage gated channel opens more slowly to permit repolarization of the neuron to its resting potential and ultimatley help end the action potential k +
what cortical lobe is critical for mapping changes in the body that occur in response to an emotionally competent stimuli insula
the papez circuit began with what structure that was said to be responsible for many basic drives hypothalmus
what cranial nerve is critical for both swallowing and salivation glossopharyngeal
taste information is carried by which three receptors facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus
what type of glial cell provides myelin for the pns schwann cell
the sodium potassium pump ejects 3 ___ for every 2___ it brings in ejects 3 sodium, allows 2 potassium
Created by: Eileenasaur



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