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Genes & Heredity-2

Genes & Heredity (Part 2 of 2)

TermDefinition
DNA Double helix long, twisted molecule strand; Stores heredity information; 4 different chemical bases: Adenine--Thymine; Guanine--Cytosine
RNA Single helix strand Has four bases---> Adenine - Uracil Guanine - Cytosine
REPLICATE To copy or duplicate itself
CHROMOSOME Threadlike structure in the cell nucleus; Carries genetic information in DNA molecules
"X" CHROMOSOME One of the two chromosomes that determine the sex Female egg cell has TWO “X” chromosomes Male sperm cell has ONE “X” chromosome
"y" CHROMOSOME One of the two chromosomes that determine the sex Male sperm cell has ONE X chromosome and ONE Y chromosome; Male sperm determines the sex of offspring
PUNNETT SQUARE Diagram used by scientists PREDICTS probability off-spring will inherit a trait.
PEDIGREE CHART Diagram used by scientists to TRACE present of a genetic disease in a family. i.e., sickle cell
MUTATION A change with a gene or chromosome; Caused randomly or by environmental conditions. In "sex" cells (sperm/egg)--passed down to the next generation In "body" cells--function of cell could be effected; however, may not pass to next generation
CLONING Process used by scientists; Reproduces an organism from its own DNA
Created by: pj johnson