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biology chapter 31

Chordates with a backbone Vertebrates
Named for individual segments Vertebrates
Vertebrae form central axis for muscle attachment and protects the dorsal nerve cord
How do fish breath open and closing his mouth
thin sheet of tissue that increases the surface area available for oxygen the gills hang like a curtain from the mouth to the cheeks Fish gills
opening of the cheek at the rear cavity Fish gill slits
The process of fish breathing the fish swallows the water and that forces the water in the mouth over the gills and then out the gill slits
water flows in one direction combined with the specific arrangement of gill tissue permits from the countercurrent flow which is very efficient way of extracting oxygen up to 85 percent of available oxygen is extracted from the water countercurrent flow
Air vs water air contains about 20 times as much water as sea water yet the gill can not take in oxygen from the air
bag like repertory organ that allows gas exchange between the air and the blood Amphibians lungs
the amount of oxygen a lung can absorb can depend on his internal surface area increase surface area in the amount of oxygen can be absorbed you there fore the interior surface is highly folded Surface area
so they can obtain oxygen Moist skin
Greater metabolic demand of oxygen since they are more active Reptiles
Enlarged surface area of the lung available for diffusion reptile
they are small chambers that are clustered together like grapes Alveoli
Greater demand for oxygen –since we maintain constant body temp Mammals
Have 300 million alveoli in there lungs Mammals
get enough oxygen by 1 way air flow made possible by the evolution of a series of ____ _____connected to the birds lungs air sacs
What are the 2 advantages of a birds - No oxygen poor air left in lungs the lungs are exposed only to fully oxygenated air - Flow of blood in lungs runs in different direction to the flow of air therefore blood contains more oxygen than exhaled air
delivers oxygen to and removes carbon dioxide from the bodies tissue Circulatory system
What are the 2 basic features - heart - network of vessels
through blood can circulate Network of vessels
pumps the blood Heart
In a fish how is the blood pumped to the gills The blood is pumped first through Gills->to the rest of the body therefore the blood deliver to the tissues is fully oxygenated
Why is the blood slushy due to after passing through the tiny blood vessels from the gills the flow of the blood lose much of force of the blood from the heart
Why can the blood not be delivered quickly enough circulation is sluggish
Top half of the heart Atrium
Bottom half of the heart Ventricles
What separates to atrium into left and right halves Septum
What is the advantage of being an amphibian the oxygenated blood is pumped to the muscles that have higher pressure
What is a disadvantage of being an amphibian the oxygen blood is still mixed with deoxygenated blood since there is no septum in the ventricle therefore the heart pumps out a mix of oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood
Incomplete separation of ventricle but they still have mixing of the blood Reptile
What 3 animals have a 4 chambered heart Mammals, Birds and Crocodiles
What 3 animals have a Completely separated ventricles and the blood is pumped to tissues and they are fully oxygenated Mammals, Birds and Crocodiles
we lose water about 2/3 of our vertebras are water dehydration
they lose water my osmoses in salty water in which they swim to make up for that water lose the fish drinks lots of water but the water contains salt marine fish
they have more salt in there body that the surrounded water so the fish needs to avoid taking in to much water and losing to much salt through osmosis freshwater fish
How can the freshwater fish avoid water by taking in salt they have more salt in there body that the surrounded water so the fish needs to avoid taking in to much water and losing to much salt through osmosis solution: kidney; nephon
regulate the salt and water balance and remove metabolic waste from the blood kidney
kidneys are made up of thousands of disposal of units called nephrons
filter out the metabolic waste which is passed out through the urine nephrons
are made up of thousands of disposal of units called nephrons the nephron filter out the metabolic waste which is passed out through the urine kidney
dilute urine freshwater fish
dilute urine amphibian
evaporation problem therefore they reabsorb much more water in there kidneys and produce more concentrated urine the urine can not become to concentrated or the water from the body will flow into urine by osmosis and the kidney will explode reptiles
the kidneys remove more water from the urine so the urine is 4 time as concentrated as the blood plasma mammals
what kind of water tight skin does Amphibians have mucus
what kind of water tight skin do reptiles have scales
what kind of skin do Mammals/Birds have skin is dry and virtually water tight
Amphibians – mucus to prevent evaporation they secrete a slippery mucus
Reptiles – scales which overlap and for a water type dry covering
is water loss a problem for Fish/Amphibians water loss is not significant problem because they live near the water
is water loss a problem for reptiles severe water loss problem and the fertilized eggs need a moist environment to develop
what are the Two protective membranes Amnion Chorion
enclosed the embryo within a watery environment Amnion
allows oxygen to enter the egg and carbon dioxide to leave but it is impermeable to water it is called the amniotic egg Chorion
they lay amniotic eggs surrounded by a tough shells Monotremes
fish have a _____ _____ external fertilization
fish release male and female gametes near each other in the w external fertilization
amphibians have a external fertilization
The reproductive cycle is still depended on the presence of free water amphibians
what are the 2 phases of a fishes development larva Metamorphosis
the eggs are fertilized within the female before they are laid internal fertilization
the young hatch from eggs laid outside the mothers body ex. Platypuses Oviparous
the young are born live from eggs that hatch within the mothers body Ovoviviparous
the young come from reptile eggs fully formed at birth and ready to fend for them selves reptiles
there not able to survive unaided since there development is still incomplete they are nurtured by there parents unlike most reptiles birds
the young are born live from egg cells that develop within the mothers body and nourished from nutrients that are pasted from mother to embryo Viviparous
give birth to live embryos at very early stage of development they then craw into a pouch and continue developing for many months ex) kangaroo Marsupials
they retain there young much longer time within the body they nourish through the placenta in which nutrients are channeled through the embryo from the blood of the mother Placental mammals
Created by: Lauren Bowers