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etiolation Plant morphological adaptations for growing in darkness.
eukaryotic cells Contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes.
eutrophication Sewage and fertilizer runoff adds nutrients to lakes; phytoplankton decreases and cyanobacteria increases.
evapotranspiration Evaporation of water from soil plus transpiration from plants. Correlates with species richness.
evolutionary adaptation An accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms' ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments.
exergonic reaction Reaction that proceeds with a net release of free energy.
exocytosis Occurs when a cell secretes certain biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
exons Coding segments of eukaryotic DNA.
exothermic Animals that gain heat mostly from external sources.
exponential growth Population increase under ideal conditions, when r > 0. Forms a J-shaped curve.
expression vector A cloning vector that contains the requisite prokaryotic promoter just upstream of a restriction site where a eukaryotic gene can be inserted.
extremophiles Archaea that live in extreme environments.
F factor A piece of DNA that confers the ability form a sex pili.
F plasmid The plasmid form of the F factor.
F1 Generation The hybrid offspring of true-breeding parents.
F2 Generation After the self-pollenization of the F1 generation, this is produced.
facilitated diffusion Passive diffusion that is aided by transport proteins, but that does not require cellular energy.
facilitators Foundation species have positive effects on other species.
facultative anaerobes Can make enough ATP to survive using using fermentation or respiration.
fate maps A labor-intensive study to produce useful territorial diargams of embryonic development.
feedback inhibition A metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway.
fermentation A partial degradation of sugars that occur without the use of oxygen.
fertilization Union of gametes.
fibroblasts In connective tissue, cells that secrete the proteins of the fibers.
fibrous connective tissue Dense tissue, large number of collagen fibers organized into parallel bundles. Includes ligaments and tendons.
first law of thermodynamics Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
fitness Individuals whose inherited traits confer an advantage have a better chance of surviving in a given environment and will leave more offspring.
fixed action patterns (FAP) A sequence of unlearned behavioral acts that is unchangeable and usually carried to completion.
flaccid This happens when water moves, but the amount within the cell is constant; no pressure builds.
florigen A flowering signal, not yet chemically identified, that may be a hormone or may be a change in relative concentrations of multiple hormones.
fluid mosaic model Structural model of the plasma membrane where molecules are free to move sideways within a lipid bilayer.
food web Linked food chains.
foraging Behavior associated with recognizing, searching for, capturing, and consuming food.
forebrain The largest and most complicated region of the brain, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum.
foundation species Cause physical changes in environment that affect community structure.
founder effect When a small number of individuals colonize a new area; the new gene pool is not reflective of original population.
frameshift mutation Mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in improper grouping of nucleotides into codons.
free energy Measures the portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system, as in a living cell.
fruit A mature ovary of a flower that protects dormant seeds and often aids in their dispersal.
fruit ripening A burst of ethylene production in a fruit triggers the ripening process.
fundamental niche The niche species could potentially occupy.
G-protein-linked receptor A plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a G-protein.
G1 phase The first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.
G2 phase The second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.
GABA An inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.
game theory Evaluates alternate strategies when outcome depends not only on each individual's strategy but also that of others.
gametes A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm that unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
gametic isolation When sperm can't fertilize the eggs.
gametophyte The stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces gametes, or sex cells.
ganglion A cluster of nerve cell bodies, often of similar function, located in the PNS.
gated channel A protein channel in a cell membrane that opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus.
gel electrophoresis The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.
gene cloning The production of multiple copies of a gene.
gene expression Conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein.
gene families Groups of related genes in an organism's genome.
gene flow When a population gains or loses alleles., movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population.
gene pool All the genes in a given population at a given time.
gene-for-gene recognition A widespread form of plant disease resistance involving recognition of pathogen-derived molecules by the protein products of specific plant disease resistance genes.
genes Units of heredity made up of DNA.
genetic annealing Horizontal gene transfer between different bacteria and archae.
genetic drift Change in allele frequencies due to chance.
genetic engineering The direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes.
genetic map An ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome.
genetic recombination The regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents.
genetic variation Heritable variations in a population.
genetics Scientific study of heredity and variation.
genome The ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism.
genomic equivalence All cells in an organism contain the same complement of genes. These are the same set of genes that are established in the fertilized egg.
genomic imprinting Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele is inherited from the male or female parent.
genomic library A set of thousands of DNA segments from a genome, each carried by a plasmid, phage, or other cloning vector.
genotype An organism's genetic makeup.
genus First part of scientific name.
geographic variation Difference in variation between population subgroups in different areas.
geometric isomer Differ in arrangement around a double bond.
gibberellins A class of related plant hormones that stimulate growth in the stem and leaves, trigger the germination of seeds and breaking of bud dormancy, and stimulate fruit development.
glandualar epithelia Tissue that absorbs or secretes chemical solutions.
glial cells Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
glucagon The antagonist of insulin that helps increase blood sugar. It stimulates the liver to break down glycogen into glucose.
glutamate The most common neurotransmitter in the brain. Excitatory.
glycogen Extremely branched polymer of glucose.
glycolipids Membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to lipids.
glycolosis Breaking glucose into two molecules of a compound called pyruvate.
glycoprotein A protein with one or more carbohydrates covalently attached to it.
glycoproteins Membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to proteins.
Golgi apparatus Stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.
gradualism A model of evolution in which gradual change over a long period of time leads to biological diversity.
graft versus host reaction When lymphocytes in donated bone marrow react against the recipient.
Gram stain Used to classify prokaryotes based on cell wall composition. Important for antibiotics; some antibiotics work on one but not the other.
Gram-negative bacteria Bacteria that have complex cell walls with less peptidoglycan but with lipopolysaccharides. Very toxic and hard to treat.
Gram-positive bacteria Bacteria that have simple cell walls with much peptidoglycan.
granum Stack of thylakoids.
Green World Hypothesis Terrestrial herbivores consume relatively little plant biomass because they are held in check by predators, parasites and disease.
Greenhouse Effect Carbon dioxide and water vapor in atmosphere trap infrared radiation, re-reflecting it back toward earth.
grey matter The portions of the central nervous system that are abundant in cell bodies of neurons rather than axons.
gross primary production (GPP) Amount of light energy that is converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis.
growth factors Factors that stimulate the cell to divide.
growth factors Regulatory proteins that ensure that the events of cell division occur in the proper sequence and at the correct rate.
habitat isolation When two species encounter each other only rarely.
habituation A loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no information.
Hamilton's rule when C < r x B C = cost to the altruistic party r = genetic relatedness B = fitness benefit to recipient of altruism
haplo diploid system A sex determination system in most species of bees and ants in which there are no sex chromosomes. Females develop from fertilized eggs (diploid) and males develop from unfertilized eggs (haploid).
haploid One set of chromosomes.
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem Helps measure changes in allele frequencies over time . Provides an "ideal" population to use as a basis of comparison.
heat-shock proteins Proteins that help maintain integrity of other proteins that would normally be denatured in extreme heat.
helicase An enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands.
helper T cells Activate macrophages, B cells and T cells.
hemophilia An X-linked recessive disorder in which blood fails to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding if injured.
heredity Transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
Hersey-Chase Experiment Devised an experiment that showed that only the DNA of T2 phages enters a bacterial cell during infection.
heterochrony Change in the rate or timing of a developmental event ; an organism's shape depends on relative growth rate of body parts.
heterozygous advantage Maintains recessive alleles in a population,
hibernation Long-term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity.
hindbrain The posterior portion of the brain including cerebellum and brainstem.
histamine Chemical stored in mast cells that triggers dilation and increased permeability of capillaries.
histone acetylation The attachment of acetyl groups to certain amino acids of histone proteins.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) The infectious agent that causes AIDS. HIV is a retrovirus.
homeostasis "Steady state" or "constant internal milieu".
homeotic genes Genes that determine basic features of where a body part is.
homologous chromosomes Pair of chromosomes that are the same size, same appearance and same genes.
homologous structures Same structure, different function. Comes from common ancestor.
homology Similarity resulting from common ancestry.
homoplasies Analogous structures that have evolved independently.
homozygous An organism having a pair of identical alleles for a character, either dominant or recessive.
hormone The secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect.
hormones Circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized cells, travels in body fluids, and act on specific target cells.
host range The limited range of host cells that each type of virus can infect and parasitize.
Hox genes Class of homeotic genes. Changes in these genes can have a profound impact on morphology.
human disturbance Reduces species diversity in all communities.
Human Genome Project An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome.
humoral immune response The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of B cells and that leads to the production of antibodies, which defend against bacteria and viruses in body fluids.
Huntington's disease Genetic disorder that causes progressive deterioration of brain cells. caused by a dominant allele. symptoms do not appear until about the age of 30.
hybrid breakdown Hybrid is fertile, but when they breed the next generation is sterile.
hybridization The crossing of two true-breeding parents.
hydrolysis Reaction where water split into two hydrogens and one oxygen; this breaks a polymer.
hypersensitive response (HR) A plant's localized defense response to a pathogen
hypertonic Describes a solution that has a greater concentration of total solute.
hypocotyl The part of a plant embryo directly below the cotyledons, forming a connection with the radicle.
hypotonic Describes a solution that has a lesser concentration of total solute.
immigration New individuals moving into population. Increases population size.
immunization The deliberate exposure of a pathogen to produce memory cells.
immunoglobulins Secreted antibodies.
imprinting Includes both learning and innate components, generally irreversible.
inclusive fitness The total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives to increase the production of their offspring.
incomplete dominance Creates a blended phenotype; one allele is not completely dominant over the other.
incomplete flower A flower in which one or more of the four basic floral organs such as sepals, petals, stamens, or carpels are either absent or nonfunctional.
independent assortment The random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes.
induced fit Brings chemical groups of the active site into positions that enhance their ability to catalyze the chemical reaction.
inducer A specific small molecule that inactivates the repressor in an operon.
induction The process by which neighboring cells can influence the determination of a cell.
infant mortality Number of infant deaths per thousand live births.
inflammtory response Innate response with the purpose of containing a site of damage, localizing the response, eliminating the invader and restore tissue function.
inflorescence A group of flowers tightly clustered together.
innate behavior A behavior that is developmentally fixed.
innate immunity Immunity that is present before exposure and effective from birth. Responds to a broad range of pathogens.
Created by: ssteuter