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Meiosis & Genetics

QuestionAnswer
Haploid Cell A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n)
Diploid Cell A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent. *Di means 2*
Gamete Cell A haploid egg or sperm cell
Somatic Cell Normal body cell
Tetrad A pair of homologous chromosomes that have replicated and come together through synapsis in prophase I of meiosis; consists of four chromatids.
Homologous Chromosomes Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding locations. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother.
Spermatogenesis The continuous and prolific production of mature sperm cells in the testes.
Oogenesis The process in the ovary that results in the production of female gametes.
What phase does crossing over occur? Prophase I
Why is crossing over important? It results in genetically new chromatids *Driving force of evolution
Which phase is called a reduction division because genetic information is halved? Anaphase I
Is Meiosis I or Meiosis II like the stages in mitosis? Meiosis II
Does Meiosis or Mitosis produce genetically identical offspring? Mitosis
What phase do sister chromatids separate? Anaphase II
What stage do homologous chromosomes line up in the middle? Metaphase I
Dominance & Recessiveness, Segregation, and Independent Assortment are 3 principles developed by whom? Gregor Mendel
What is meant by the P1 Generation? Parental Generation
What does F1 stand for? First filial generation aka Offspring of the parental (P1) generation
What is F2? Second filial generation Offspring of F1 generation
Cross-pollination when different types of plants are crossed
Dominant In a heterozygote, the allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype Capital letter: A
Recessive In a heterozygote, the allele that is completely masked or hidden in the phenotype. lower case letter:a
Homozygous Having two identical alleles for a given trait. ex. AA or aa
Heterozygous Having two different alleles for a given trait ex. Aa
Phenotype The physical characteristic that develops as a result of a genotype.
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism.
Monohybrid When only 1 trait is crossed
Dihybrid When 2 traits are crossed at the same time
Genes Segments of DNA responsible for a certain trait
Alleles Each possibility for a gene, we use capital and lower case letters ex. Tt
Test Cross filling out a Punnett square to try and determine the genes of the parent
Pure always produced offspring with the same characteristic TT or tt
What is a diploid zygote? The result of fertilization of a sperm and egg cell
One cat carries heterozygous, long-haired traits (Ss), and its mate carries homozygous short-haired traits (ss). Use a Punnett square to determine the probability of one of their offspring having long hair. 50%
One flower is heterozygous red (Rr) and it is crossed with a homozygous white (rr) plant. Use a Punnett square to determine the probability of one of their offspring having a red color. 50%
One flower is heterozygous red (Rr) and it is crossed with a homozygous white (rr) plant. Use a Punnett square to determine the probability of one of their offspring having a white color. 50%
One cat carries heterozygous, long-haired traits (Ss), and its mate carries homozygous short-haired traits (ss). Use a Punnett square to determine the probability of one of their offspring having short hair. 50%
In a certain species of pine trees, short needles (S) are dominant to long needles (s). According to the Punnett square, what is the probability of an offspring having long needles? 50%
Created by: msgreen