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N5 Unit 2 Control

Nerves and Hormones

Nervous system made of the CNS and nerves. Gives fast communication inside animals.
CNS central nervous system = brain + spinal cord
Neurone a nerve cell
Synapse gap between nerves
Cerebrum The part of brain that stores memory, receives main sensory information and site of conscious thought
Cerebellum The part of the brain that controls balance and coordination
Medulla The part of the brain that controls heart rate and breathing rate
Sensory neurone Nerve cell that carries electrical impulses from receptors to the CNS
Motor neurone Nerve cell that carries electrical impulses from relay neurone to effector to cause rapid response in muscle, or slower response in a gland
Relay neurone Found in CNS, in reflex arc passes information from sensory to motor neurone
Reflex arc fastest arrangement of nerves found in a reflex; sensory→relay→motor
Receptor cells Detect changes in the environment (act as a stimulus)
Effector Something that brings about a response to a stimulus e.g muscle or gland
Endocrine gland Ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream e.g. adrenal gland, pituitary gland
Reflex Fast, protective and not under conscious control e.g. eye blink, knee jerk
Hormone A chemical messenger sent through the blood, slower response but longer lasting than nerve signal
Target tissue The cells that respond to hormone messages e.g. the kidney is the target for ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)
Glucagon Hormone produced by pancreas when glucose is low, stimulates breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver
Glycogen Storage carbohydrate produced in the liver from glucose
Role of Pancreas in sugar regulation Senses sugar level and releases glucagon if low, and insulin if high
Role of the Liver in sugar regulation Releases glucose from glycogen breakdown if glucagon present, stores glucose as glycogen if insulin present
Diabetes A disease where the body cannot regulate blood sugar correctly
Insulin A hormone produced by pancreas when glucose is high, stimulates uptake of glucose by muscle and liver
Hormone receptor Found on target tissue and hormone fits into its shape
Created by: nscobie