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Bio12 Respiratory

SLS Bio 12 Respiratory (R.L.)

Alveoli Microscopic sac like endings of the bronchioles, forming the lungs. It is through their surfaces that gas exchange for external respiration occurs.
Aortic bodies One of several small clusters of chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and supporting cells located along the aortic arch.
Bicarbonate ions Dissociation products of particular salts such as sodium bicarbonate and carbonic acid. The bicarbonate ions acts as buffer.
Bronchi The branches of the trachea that conduct air to and from the lungs. They are protected from collapse by cartilaginous rings.
Bronchioles The branches of the bronchi. The bronchioles continue to branch into smaller and smaller passageways finally ending at alveoli.
Carbaminohemogloblin The combination of carbon diode and hemoglobin. Second most common way that carbon dioxides transported safely in plasma.
Carbon dioxide A toxic by product of cellular respiration that is removed from the body by the respiratory system.
Carbonic anhydrase An enzyme located in the membrane of red blood cells. The enzyme catalyzes the reversible reaction between H20 and CO2 forming carbonic acid.
Carotid bodies A small mass of receptors in the carotid artery sensitive to chemical change in the blood.
Cilia Short hair-like structures made from 20 molecules of the protein tubulin.
Diaphragm The sheet-lie muscle at the base of the thoracic cavity. Contraction of the diaphragm causes it to flatten out from its normal arched shape.
Exhalation Breathing out, also termed expiration.
External respiration Refers to gas exchange (diffusion) across the alveoli surfaces.
Hydrogen ions Protons. When hydrogen ionizes, it loses its electron and gains a positive charge. The measure of the hydrogen ion concentration can be used to determine the pH of a solution.
Inhalation Breathing in.
Intercostal muscles The smooth muscles tissue lying between the ribs.
Internal respiration Gas exchange at the systemic capillaries beds.
Larynx Voice box. The larynx is the first actual structure of the trachea.
Lungs Organs of the gas exchange for the respiratory system.
Mucus A watery fluid secreted by mucosal cells. Mucus is used as a lubricant and a protectant.
Nasal cavity The sinus chamber at the top of the nostrils. It is the main entry point for air into the respiratory pathway and is kept moist with mucus.
Oxygen A diatomic gas found in nature making up about 21% of the atmosphere.
Oxyhemoglobin The combination of oxygen and hemoglobin.
pH A measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in a solution. If a solution is neutral, it has a pH of 7.0.
Pharynx The region at the back of the mouth where both food and air travel.`
Pleural membrane The double layer of membranes that surround the lungs. The outer pleural membrane is on the inner wall of the thoracic cavity and along the top of the diaphragm.
Reduced hemoglobin Hemoglobin that is transporting hydrogen ions.
Respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata The part of the brain that monitors the blood and signals the contraction of the diaphragm and intercostals muscles causing inhalation.
Respiratory tract The pathway of airflow in the body associated with respiration.
Ribs A series of curved bones that are articulated with the vertebrae and occur in pairs, 12 in humans
Stretch receptors A type of nerve receptor that is sensitive to stretch. Stretch receptors are located on the surface of alveoli.
Thoracic cavity Chest cavity. Contains the lungs and the heart. Its lower limit is the diaphragm.
Trachea Windpipe. The trachea is the cartilaginous ringed tube that conducts air up and down the neck.
Created by: rickli1