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Pharmacology

Chapter 5- 8

QuestionAnswer
Which of these is not a pharmacologic effect of aspirin? A. Analgesic B. Antiseptic C. Antipyretic D. Uricosuric E. Antiplatelet B. Antiseptic
T/F If you take enough Opioids, you can possibly stop breathing? True
What is the commonly used name for acetaminophen? Tylenol
T/F Ketoraloc (Toradol) is more effective when injected True
T/F Nonopiod analgesic act primarily in the central nervous system and Opioids act primarily at peripheral nerve endings F- Nonpoid analgesic act primairly at peripheral nerve ending and Opioids act primarily in the central nervous system
T/F A major symptom of and adverse reaction of "withdrawl" is respiratory depression F-the major symptom of respiratory depression is an adverse reaction of an "over-dose"
What substance is commonly ingested in cases of over dosage to absorb the drug? A. more of the drug B. licorice C. charcoal D. a sponge C. Charcoal
What type of nonopioid analgesic drug is easiest on the digestive tract? A. Acetaminophen B. NSAIDS C. Salicylates D. None of the above A. Acetaminophen
Where do most narcotics come from and will cause a drug test to turn out positive if eaten/ consumed? A. Cactus B. Poppy C. Jimson Weed D. Rose E. Swiss roll B. Poppy
T/F In 2014 the recorded MOST prescribed drug was Synthroid (levothyroxine) True
T/F Gout is an inherited disease occuring primarily in women? False
Which medication is not an opioid? A. methadone B. ibuprofen C. oxycodone D. hydromorphone B. Ibuprofen
T/F Opioids are not indicated for chronic pain in denistry True
What type of seed can result in a positive drug test? Poppy Seed
Opiods can be classified by all of the following EXCEPT one. Which is the EXCEPTION? A. their mechanism of action at a receptor site B. Their chemical structure C. Their efficacy D. Their solubility D. Their solubility
Opiods are excreted through which of the following? A. Liver B. Kidneys C. Lungs D. Pancreas B. Kidneys
Which of the following is NOT a natural opiod-like substance found in the body? A. Endorphins B. Dynorphins C. Cephalexin E. Enkephalins C. Cephalexin
T/F The oldest member of NSAID's is naproxen? False it is ibuprofen
T/F The usual analgesic dose of ibuprofen is 400-600 mg every 4-6 hours False it is 400-800 mg every 4-6 hours
Opioids can be categorized as: A. agonists B. antagonist C. mixed opioids D. all the above D. all the above
Does our own body naturally make it's own narcotics, if so by which substances? A. enkephalins B. endorphins C. dynorphins D. All the above E. none of the above D. all the above
What is the physical component of pain? A. pain threshold B. sensation C. reaction D. Perception D. perception
The prostaglandins are potent vasoconstricting agents that also decrease capillary permeability. Therefore aspirin cause decreased erythema and swelling of the inflamed are. A. statement is true; statement is false B. statement is false; statement is true B. Statement is false; statement is true
T/F most dental pain can be managed successfully with the use of NSAID's, as long as the patient has not adverse reactions to NSAID's True
What is the issue that often brings pt.'s to the dental office? Pain
What is the issue that often keeps a pt.'s away from the dental office? Pain
T/F The dental health care provider must be able to recognize and evaluate a pt.'s need for medication True
What are the two components of pain? perception and reaction
Is perception the physical or psychologic component? the physical component
Is reaction the physical or psychologic component? psychologic component
What is analgesic? "pain-killer" used to achieve relief from pain
T/F A level of discomfort is the same from person to person. False: a level of discomfort that may not require drug treatment in one person may need therapy in another
What two groups are analgesic agents divided into? nonopioid, noncarcotic, peripheral, and antipyretic analgesic; opioid, narcotic and central analgesics
Where do nonopioid analgesics act primarily? at peripheral nerve endings, although their antipyretic effect is mediated centrally
Where do opioids act primarily? in the CNS
What mechanism of action do nonopioid analgesics perform? inhibit prostaglandin synthesis
What mechanism of action do opioids perform? affect the response to pain by depressing the CNS
What are nonopioids divided into? salicylates (aspirin-like), acetaminophen, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's)
What is the prototype of salicylate? Aspirin
Extracts of willow bark containing salicin have been used to reduce what? Fever
What is the most useful salicylate for analgesia? aspirin
What is the mechanism of action for the salicylates? inhibits the prostaglandin and reduces pain
T/F: Salicylates are rapidly and completely absorbed from the stomach to intestine and is distributed into most body tissues and fluids. True
In Salicylates does the half life vary with time or does it vary with the dose amount? Half-life varies with dose
What is Zero-Order Kinetics? a constant amount rather than a constant percentage is metabolized per hour.
What is Analgesic? relieves mild to moderate pain
What is Anti-pyretic? reduces fever by inhibitions of prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus; no effect on normal body temperature.
What is Anti-inflammatory? causes decreased erythema and swelling
What is Anti-platelet? binds to platelets, depending on dose, can inhibit either prostacyclin (inhibit aggregation ) or thromboxane A2 (stimulates aggregation)
What are the pharmacologic effects for Salicylates? analgesic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, and anyiplatelet
What are the common adverse effects of Salicylates? GI effects, bleeding, and Reye syndrome
What is the disorder called that forms when an Salicylates is given to a child when they have the flu or chicken pox? Reye Syndrome
What are the specific GI disorders for Salicylates? dyspepsia (indigestion), nausea, vomiting, gastric bleeding
What are some effects of Salicylates toxicity? tinnitus, headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, dimness of vision
What are some of the higher levels of Salicylates toxicity? hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis
What does the highest level of Salicylates toxicity cause? DEATH
What is the treatment for those that have Salicylates toxicity? inducing emesis and administering activated charcoal in pill form
What drug has an anticoagulant effect and can displace Salicylates from its binding sites increasing the anticoagulant effect? Warfarin
What drug causes Salicylates to interfere with the uricosuric effect and cause an acute attack of gout? Probenecid
T/F the adult dose for Salicylates is 10-15 mg/ kg every 4-6 hours. False an adult dose is 325-650 mg/kg every 4 hours
What is a children dose for Salicylates? 10-15 mg/kg every 4-6 hours
What is an example of an Salicylates? aspirin
What is the mechanism of action for the NSAID's? inhibit the enzyme COX and prostaglandin synthase and reduce the formation of the prostaglandin precursors
What is the peak time for NSAID's? 1-2 hours
Where are the NSAID's metabolized? liver
Where are the NSAID's excreted? kindneys
T/F: food reduces the rate in NSAID's but not the absorption. True
NSAID's are used for A. analgesic B. antipyretic C. anti-inflammatory D. all the above E. A and B D. all the above
In the NSAID adverse reactions include A. oral B. hypersensitivity C. Pregnancy and nursing D. GI effects E. CNS effects F. blood clotting G. renal effects H. Harmonica I. A-G I. A-G
T/F Toxicity doesn't exist wit NSAID's. F, may increase lithium toxicity when the drug Lithium is used.
When using NSAID's and Digoxin what happens? it increases the effects.
T/F NSAID's decrease the effects of anti-hypertensives. T
Uses for the NSAID"S are for A. Medical B. Dental C. Physiological D. Physical E. A and B D. B and C E. A and B
What is the drug of choice for the NSAID's? Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
What can be used when the others of NSAID's cannot be? Toradol (Ketorolac)
What is the dose amount for Ibuprofen? 400-800 mg/ 4-6 hours
T/F Naproxen and Naproxen Sodium have longer half-lives than the Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) in the NSAID categories? T
Where are the Acetaminophen's absorbed? rapidily and completely in the GI tract
What is the peak plasma level for acetaminophen's? 1-3 hours
Where are acetaminophen's metabolized? in the liver microsomal enzymes
What are the pharmacologic effects of acetaminophen? A. analgesic B. Antipyretic C.non-anti-inflammatory D. anti-inflammatory E. A-C F. all the above E. A-C
T/F of all analgesic acetaminophen is the easiest on the tummy T
Who should avoid acetaminophen's? alcoholics
What is the toxicity treatments for acetaminophen's? gastric lavage and activated charcoal
Can a long-term consumption of acetaminophen's cause nephrotoxicity? yes
Are acetaminophen's free of drug interactions? yup
In order to avoid a long-term consumption of acetaminophen's is it safe to use alternating therapy with NSAID's? Yes
Are acetaminophen's used for analgesic, anti-pyretic uses? T/F True
Is NSAID's, Acetaminophen's, or Salicylates safe to use for children due to a less likley cause of Reye Syndrome? Acetaminophen
Are acetaminophen's useful in pt.'s that have an aspirin hypersensitivity? yes theay are useful
What is an example of Acetaminophen? Tylenol
Gout is an inherited disease that occurs in the elbow usually.A. both statements are true B. both statements are false C. first statement is true the second is false D. the first statement is false but the second is true C. the first statement is true the second is false; Gout usually occurs in the big toe or kneww
What is the cause of Gout? an excess of uric acid
What are some drugs used to treat acute attacks of gout? NSAID's and Colchicine
What are some drugs to prevent Gout? Allopurinol and probenecid
T/F Gout is something that is inherited usually in men that has not painful or noticeable effect what so ever. F gout is painful and cannot tolerate touch
Why is pain important in the dental world? pain is the issue that brings pt.'s into the office and it is the issue that keeps pt.'s from the office
What are the two components of pain? perception and reaction
How is the threshold of pain raised? sleep, sympathy, activities, analgesics
Is pain tolerance the same from person to person? no, pain varies from person to person
The pain threshold is lowered by what? valium (benzodiazapines)
What are the two divisions that Analgesics are divided into? nonopioid, nonnarcotic, peripheral, and antipyretic analgesics; opoid, narcotic, and central analgesics
Where are the nonopioid, nonnarcotic, peripheral, and antipyretic analgesics primarily at and mediated? peripheral nerve endings, mediated centrally
What are the nonopioid, nonnarcotic, peripheral, and antipyretic analgesics divided into? salicylate (aspirin-like), acetaminophen, and NSAIDs
What do the Nonopioid, nonnarcotic, peripheral, and antipyretic analgesics inhibit? inhibit the prostaglandin synthesis
Where are the Opioid, narcotic, and central analgesics primarily at? CNS
What does Methotrxate (MTX) do? used to treat certain cancers and autoimmune diseases
What is Analgesia? raises the pain threshold
What is cough suppression? depresses the cough center in the medulla (anti-tussive)
What is respiratory depression? usually the cause of death with an overdose
What is nausea and emesis? result of direct stimulation of chemo-receptor trigger zone in the medulla
What is gastrointestinal (GI) Effect? increased smooth muscle tone of intestinal tract to decrease propulsive contractions and motility
What is constipation? caused by tonic contraction of the GI tract
What is myosis? pinpoint pupils
What is urinary retention? increased smooth muscle tone in urinary tract
What is CNS effect? occasional stimulation, exhibited by anxiety, restlessness, or nervousness
What are the actions of opioids? bind to receptors in the CNS and Spinal cord, producing a reaction of pain
What does T's and Blues stand for? Talwin and Benadryl
What are some common side effects of opioids? Respiratory depression, nausea and emesis, constipation, myosis, urinary retention, CNS effects, Cardiovascular effects, histamine release, pregnancy and nursing, and addiction
What are some examples of the strongest opioids? morphine and methadone (dolophine)
What are some examples of an intermediate opioid? Oxycodone ( in Percodan, Percocet, Tylox, Roxiprin, Roxicet) and Pentazocaine ( in Talwin NX)
What are some examples of a weak opioid? Hydrocodone (in Vicodin, Lortab, Lorcet) and Codeine ( in Tylenol #3, Empirin #3)
What are the common medications used to treat opioid abuse? methadone (dolophine), naltrexone (trexan), and adjuntive medications ( phenothiazines, clonidine, benzodiazepines )
What is the process of microbial population when an infection progresses? 1. dental infection 2. organisms respond 3. gram-positive infections collect with gram-negative bacteria (mixed infection) 4. anaerobic organisms increase until is only consists of anaerobic flora
Anti-infective Agents do what? act against or destroy infections
Anti-bacterial Agents do what? destroy or suppress the growth or multiplication of bacteria
Anti-biotic Agents do what? chemicals that destroy or suppress the growth or multiplication of bacteria or prevent their action
Anti-Microbial Agents do what? destroy or suppress the growth or multiplication of microorganisms
Anti-fungal Agents do what? destroy or suppress the growth or multiplication of fungi
Anti-protozoal does what? Attack amebae, giardia etc.
Anti-viral Agents do what? destroy or suppress the growth or multiplications of viruses
Bactericidal does what? ability to kill bacteria and irreversible: if bacteria are removed from the drug they cannot live
Bacteriostatic does what? inhibit or retard the multiplication or growth of bacteria and reversible: if bacteria are removed they are still able to grow and multiply
Blood (serum) Level does what? concentration of anti-infective in blood or serum and certain levels of an anti-biotic to produce an effect on micro-organisms
Infection does what? invasion by pathogenic micro-organisms and reaction of tissue
Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) has what? lowest concentration needed to inhibit visible growth
Resistance is what? natural or acquired ability of an organism to be immune to or resist the effects of an anti-infective agent
Spectrum is what? range of a drug and may be narrow, intermediate, or broad
Superinfection and Suprainfection are what? caused by proliferation of microorganisms and practitioner can cause and eliminate infections
Synergism is what? combinations produces more than an additive effect
Antagonism is what? when a combination produces less effect than either agent alone
T/F Amoxicillin isn't the most common to use in treatment of infections but flabenicid is the most common drug to use in treatment of infections F Amoxicillin is Most often used to treat infections due to producing higher blood levels, better absorbed, requires less frequent dosing, and is not impaired by food.
What is an example of a drug from the penicillin family? Amoxicillin
What is an example of a drug from the macrolides family? Erythromycin
What antibiotic has the potential to kill what are "normally" good intestinal bacteria, causing an episode of ulcerative colitis from tridrium difficile? clindymcine
If your pt. is unable to take their prescription with them to work that is a 10 hr shift. What should you prescribe for an acute infection caused by a fractured tooth? azithremycine (once a day pill)
If your pt. is allergic to penicillin and she states that she was nauseous. She has an infection of #19 w. swelling and lymph node is tender what should be prescribed? cephelexin
Your pt. works on the HWY crew and dentist prescribed something for chronic perio; the pt. failed to make his appt. due to being sick from sun exposure. What did the dentist prescribe? Tetracyline
Which antibiotic should most likely be prescribed for a pt. who is in their 2nd trimester and has an acute apical infection? amoxicillin
This antibiotic when taken orally can affect the estrogen production of GI bacteria amoxicillin, clindymcine, azithremycine, cephelexin, tetracyline,
This antibiotic when taken according to directions will not result in claustridium difficile over growth. none
Eating live yogurt should be discouraged while taking this antibiotic. tetracycline
Which of these is not a pharmacologic effect of aspirin? A. analgesic B. antiseptic C. antipyretic D. uricosuric E. antiplatelet b. antiseptic
T/F if you take enough opioids, you can possibly stop breathing. true
What is the commonly used name for acetaminophen? Tylenol
T/F ketorolac (Toradol) is more effective when injected. True
T/F nonopiod analgesic act primarily in the CNS and opioids act primarily at peripheral nerve endings F nonopioid analgesic act primarily at peripheral nerve endings and opioids act primarily in the CNS
T/F a major symptom of an adverse reaction of withdrawal is respiratory depression F the major symptom of respiratory depression is an adverse reaction of an overdose
What substance is commonly ingested in cases of over dosage to absorb the drug? A. more of the drug B. licorice C. charcoal D. a sponge c. charcoal
What type of nonopioid analgesic drug is easiest on the digestive tract? A. acetaminophen B. NSAIDS C. salicylates D. none of the above A. acetaminophen
Where do most narcotics come from and will cause a drug test to turn positive if eaten/cpnsumed A. cactus B. poppy C. jimson weed D. rose E. swiss roll B. poppy
T/F in 2014 the recoreded MOST prescribed drug was synthroid (levothyroxine) T
T/F Gout is an inherited disease occurring primarily in women? F occurs primarily in men
Which medication is not an opioid? A. methadone B. ibuprofen C. oxycodone D. hydromorphone B. ibuprofen
T/F most dental pain can be managed successfully with the use of NSAIDS as long as the pt has no adverse reactions True
Opioids are excreted through which of the following A. liver B. Kidneys C. Lungs D. pancreas B. kidneys
Which of the following is not a natural opioid like substance found in the body? A. endorphins B. dynorphins C. cephalexin D. enkephalins C. cephalexin
T/F the oldest member of NSAIDS in naproxen. False it's ibuprofen
T/F the usua analgesic dose of ibuprofen is 400-600 mg every 4-6 hrs False it is 400-800 mg every 4-6 hours
Opioids can be categorized as A. agonist B. antagonist C. mixed opioids D. all the above D. all the above
Does our own body naturally make its own narcotics, if so by which substances? A. enkephalins B. endorphins C. dynorphins C. all of the above D. all the above
what is the physical component of pain? A. pain threshold B. sensation C. reaction D. perception D. perception
The prostaglandins are potent vasoconstricting agents that also decrease capillary permeability. Therefore aspirin causes defreased erythems and swelling of the inflamed area A. 1 statement is true 2 is false B. 1 statement is false 2 statement is true B. first statement is false but the second it true
T/F opioid are not indicated for chronic pain in dentistry True
Opioids can be classified by all of the following except which one? A. their mechanism of action at a receptor site B. their chemical structure C. their efficacy D. their solubility D. their solubility
Acetylsalicylic acid mechanism of analgesic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory and antiplatelet effects is related to it ability to do what? inhibit the prostaglandin synthesis
Are both statements true: The two components of pain are perception and reaction. Perception is the psychological component of pain and involves the pt emotional response to the pain is the physical component the first statement is true the second statement is false perceptions is the physical component and reaction is the psychological component
What drugs are used for Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG): penicillin VK, amoxicillin
What drugs are used for Abscess (periodontal) penicillin VK Amoxil is more friendly to patient compliance.
What drugs are used for Localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP): doxycycline, tetracycline
What drugs are used for Adult periodontitis not usually treated with drugs-but tx is more common now than 15 years age
What drugs are used for Rapidly advancing periodontitis (RAP): doxycycline, tetracycline, metronidazole
What drugs are used for Soft-tissue infections penicillin VK, amoxicillin
What drugs are used for Osteomyelitis: penicillin VK, amoxicillin, clindamycin, metronidazole
What drugs are used for Mixed infections insensitive to penicillin V K Aerobes: amoxicillin, cephalexin
What drugs are used for Mixed infections insensitive to penicillin V K Anaerobes and chronic infections: metronidazole, clindamycin
What drugs are used for Prophylaxis for infective endocarditis Prosthetic heart valve, no penicillin allergy amoxicillin
Created by: daisenmurray