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General Biology 1

Exam one chapter 1-5,9

What is biology? Biology is defined as the science of life
What are the 7 properties of life? A.Cellular organization B. Ordered complexity C. Sensitivity D. Growth,development, and reproduction D. Energy utilization E. Homeostasis F. Evolutionary adaption
What are the levels of organization from lowest to highest? A. Atom B. molecules C. organelles D. cells E. Tissues F. organs G. organ systems H. organisms I. population J. species K. Communities L. ecosystem
What is the basic unit of life? A cell
What are the steps of a scientific method? 1. Observation 2. Hypothesis 3. prediction 4. experiment 5. conclusion
What is a theory? A theory is a body of interconnected concepts, t is supported by much experimenal evidence and scientific reasoning, it also expresses ideas in which we are most certain
What are the unifying things in biology? cell theory, molecular basis of interitance, structure and function
What is matter? Matter is any substance that has a mass and occupies space
What is the smallest building block of matter? An atom
What is a proton? Positively charged particles it's also the nucleus of an atom
What is an atom? The basic unit of a chemical element
What are neurtrons? Neutral particles
What are electrons? Negatively charged particles, Outer ring
What is atomic number? The numbe rof protons in the nucleus of an atom. Gives them their chemical properties which is how they are elements on the periodical table
What is atomic mass? The amount of protons and neutrons
What is an ion? An ion is a charged atom
What are cations? They have more protons than neutrons and are also positively charged
What are Anions? Have more electrons than protons and are negatively charged
What is an ionic bond? Are formed by the attraction of oppositely charged ions
What are covalent bonds? Form when atoms share two or more valence bonds
What affects the occurence of a chemical reaction? 1. Temperature 2. increase concentration of reactants and products 3. availability of a catalyst.
What is dehydration synthesis? The removal of water from a molecule
What is hydrolysis? Breaking down molecules by adding water
What is an acid? A molecule that can donate a proton or accept an electron to increase the concentration
What is a base? Chemical that accepts hydrogen ions
What is a buffer? A chemical that releases or accepts hydrogen ions as necessary to keep ph constant "protects the cell"
What are the 4 types of biologically important molecules? Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphus, sulfur
What are the functions of a protein? 1. enzyme catalyst 2. defense 3. transport 4. support(cytoskeleton) 5. motion 6. regualtion 7. storage the shape of the protein also gives it its function
How are triglycerides important in the body? they are good for long term storage, store twice as much energy as carbohydrates, saturated fats normally come from animals. (stay solid at rooms temperature). plants are unsaturated fats because when they are room temperature they turn into oils
What is starch? An energy source used for plants. It is also a polysaccharide that functions as a carbohydrate store and is an important constituent of the human diet.
What is glycogen? Stored in humans liver. holds 24 hour supply, it's also metabotically active. a substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide that forms glucose on hydrolysis.
What is cell theory? that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living organisms
What does cells have in common? 1. Genetic material 2. cytoplasm 3. plasma membrane
What is a prokaryotic cell? They lack a membrane bond nucleus. there are two tyoes archae and bacteria, they have a cell wall and a cytoplasm
What is a eukaryotic cell? Has a membrane bound nucleus, more complex, works together as a group, possess cytoskeleton
What is a nucleus? Membrane bound and stores genetic information
What is a ribosome? Not membrane bound, composed of ribosomal rna, makes proteins
Rough ER contains ribosomes
Smooth ER makes lipids and carbohydrates
Golgi apparatus packing and sorts materials from ER
Lysosomes contains digestive enzymes
peroxisome convert hydrogen peroxide to water
cloraplast carry out photo synthesis
Centrioles cell division
Plasma membrane nucleus of a cell
What is a endomembrane system? A series of membranes throughout he cytoplasm, prokaryotic cells don't have one, divides cells into comparments
What is fluid mosaic model? a model that membranes consist of phospholipids arranged in a bilayer, globular proteins inserted in lipid bilayer, are not static
What is passive transport? movement through molecules through the membrane in which energy is not required
What is active transport? Movement through molecules in which energy is required ATP
What is diffusion? movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration
What is osmosis? movement of water from high concentration to low concentration, always moves to the area of high concentration, and always requires WATER
What is facilitated diffusion? movement from high concentration with help (grabs onto a molecule and transport it across the membrane)
What is isotonic? Equal solute concentration
What is hypertonic? Has a high solute concentration
What is hypotonic? Has a lower solute concentration
What is phagocytosis? Cells take in particle matter (to eat)
Pinocytosis Cells take in fluid only (to drink)
Receptor-mediated endocytosis? Specific molecules are taken in after they bind to a receptor
What are the four mechanisms for communication between cells? 1. Direct contact 2. paracrine signaling 3. endocrine signaling 4. synaptic signaling
What are the various types of cell adhesion molecules that cells can possess? peptides, large proteins, individual amino acids, nucleotides, steroids,nitrous oxide
How does a G-protein coupled receptor work? Assist in transmitting the signal. activates enzymes or ions.
What is a intercellular receptor? located withina cell, they bind to hydrophobic ligands that can cross the plasma membrane
Membrane receptor? Are located on the plasma membrane to bind to a hydrophilic ligand outside of the cell
Created by: jhunt0921